A few nice how to lose weight book images I found:
Fry’s Chocolate Dream: The Rise and Fall of a Chocolate Empire
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Fry’s Chocolate Dream: The Rise and Fall of a Chocolate Empire.
Paperback – 25 Sep 2013 by Mr John Bradley (Author), Ms Claire Kelly (Cover Design)
MY PURPOSE in writing Fry’s Chocolate Dream: The Rise and fall of a Chocolate Empire, was to tell for the first time the story of J.S. Fry & Sons from the firm’s origins way back in 1728 until the final bar of Double Decker rolled off the Somerdale’s condemned production lines in 2011.
And what a story it is! History is written by the victors, which in this case was Cadbury’s, so I wanted to find out and tell how and why J.S. Fry & Sons became the world’s largest maker of cocoa and chocolate, and also why it fell under the heel of Cadbury’s so soon after reaching its zenith.
It all comes down to people.
The founder, a Quaker apothecary named Joseph Fry, while being a maker of chocolate, never actually got past the corner shop stage. He was more of an investor, always on the lookout for a good idea, and one that came his way was the chocolate business of another West country man, Walter Churchman, who had built a nationwide demand for his cocoa by dint of inventing a better way of grinding cocoa beans.
Churchman’s big idea, which got him a Letters Patent from King George II, he described as "a large walking wheel of weight and draught for cattle".
So a business empire would be built on an extremely large hamster wheel.
Following Joseph’s death, his wife Anna Fry took the reins for a few years until their second son, Joseph Storrs Fry, was deemed ready for the top job.
While his father had been a serial investor in a range of businesses, Joseph Storrs fancied himself as an inventor – and a confident young tyke he was, putting in a claim in 1792 for a cash prize being offered by the Royal Society of Arts for an improved design for dock cranes.
When he turned his attention to the family business, he invented a cocoa bean roaster that would become the industry standard for a hundred years. He was also one of Boulton and Watt’s early customers for a steam engine which enabled him to industrialise the family firm.
However, his attention on the business wandered with sales suffering; after taking on and then dumping a partner whose cash stopped the company from going under, he was eventually succeeded by his three sons, Richard, Francis and Joseph Fry, who collectively set the company on the path to greatness.
This third generation of Frys were an interesting lot. Francis and Richard were among the special constables called upon to quell a great pro-Reform Bill riot in the centre of Bristol, a barney that resulted in 26 Bristolians being condemned to death for their part in, among other crimes, looting the mayor’s wine cellar, storming two gaols and burning Fry’s cocoa warehouse to the ground.
When not arresting the great unwashed, Francis had a keen interest in the new railway industry, at one point crossing swords with the great I.K. Brunel over the best locomotives to be used on the South Devon Railway, eventually being proved right by events.
Francis also played a key role in the Bristol Waterworks Company getting piped water into the city. In between these good works and amassing one of the world’s finest collections of early printed Bibles, Francis and his brothers developed a range of best-selling cocoa products and invented the world’s first chocolate bar before hitting on the best-selling Fry’s Chocolate Cream, now the oldest brand of chocolate bar in the world.
They also set about expanding their Union Street factory site with a series of new buildings which would stand until after the move to Somerdale half a century later.
By the time the brothers retired and handed over to two of their offspring, Joseph Storrs Fry II and Francis James Fry, business was booming, with Fry’s products dominating the market and available pretty much everywhere.
But while business was good, it seems the two cousins running the show – one a strictly teetotal, unmarried Quaker and the other a twice-married man-about-town – didn’t get on one little bit. In fact they only communicated by letter.
In addition to this lack of harmony, there was a startling degree of complacency in the company that included the use of quill pens well into the typewriter era, the company not possessing a telephone long after they had become common in the workplace and the habit of throwing any unfilled orders onto the office fire.
Such less-than-ideal management practices were at the root of the company’s undoing, even as it reached undreamed-of heights. Fry’s would lose every key race to get into breakthrough new products such as cocoa without fillers, alkalised cocoa and milk chocolate bars, the winners each time being Cadbury Bros. of Birmingham.
Interestingly, a key reason for Fry’s losing the race to develop a winning milk chocolate was the complete unsuitability of the city centre Union Street site for bringing in thousands of gallons of fresh milk a day, the company going with inferior dried milk instead.
Joseph Storrs Fry II and his uncommunicative cousin oversaw the rise of the firm from a few hundred to several thousand employees, but their legacy would not last for long.
Within six years of the death of Joseph Storrs II, J.S Fry & Sons would be under the sway of their great rivals, Cadbury Bros, as the two firms rushed into a complex amalgamation heavily weighted in favour of the Cadbury family.
The ink on the contract was barely dry before the fragile relationships broke down with both families seemingly trapped in a loveless marriage.
The plot thickened when George Cadbury’s son, Egbert, applied out of the blue for a job at Union Street, having found there was no job for him at Bournville. His pacifist Quaker relatives seem to have been unimpressed by Egbert’s shooting down of two Zeppelins in the First World War.
Egbert was soon put in charge, along with the last member of six generations of the Fry family to play a role, Cecil Fry, of the stupendous undertaking of moving the business to Somerdale.
As if this wasn’t enough of a challenge, Egbert and Cecil had to deal with a ruthless competitor who cut prices to the bone in order to drive others to the wall, that being Fry’s so-called sister company, Cadbury Bros. It all proved so much of a financial burden such that by the time the move to Somerdale was complete, J.S Fry & Sons was barely profitable, which prompted the Cadbury board to arbitrarily force Fry’s into liquidation and take over their junior partner.
Egbert and Cecil, who both seem splendid fellows, took the slings and arrows from Bournville with great dignity and, having fought tooth and nail for a measure of independence, plotted a turnaround for Fry’s which would be implemented after the Second World War.
Old favourites such as Fry’s Chocolate Cream, Turkish Delight, Crunchie, Sandwich bars and Tiffin were revitalised and joined by new lines such as Punch and Picnic. The result was that, during the 1950s, Fry’s was the fastest-growing chocolate firm in Britain.
But it couldn’t last. By the end of the 1960s Cadbury’s had completed a full merger with Fry’s which saw many Fry’s favourites either disappear, as was the case with Five Boys, or take on the Cadbury name, as happened with Crunchie, Picnic, Fry’s Crunch, Tiffin and Assorted Nuts. However, the Fry’s management did somewhat better, taking on many senior roles in the new organisation.
Somerdale was Cadbury-ised, from the changing of the famous illuminated sign to the factory becoming just one of many Cadbury factories in an increasingly complex and sprawling international organisation.
The closure of Somerdale was something that had been on the cards for far longer than most people realise and had very nearly happened almost twenty years prior and several times since.
My book also covers how Fry’s spread around the world, including yet another example of Cadbury’s sticking the boot in when they took over Fry’s large Canadian business in order to use it to propagate their Dairy Milk brand.
The one thing they couldn’t get rid of was the best-selling Fry’s cocoa, which is still market leader to this day in Canada – the last remaining country to sell the line.
Most importantly, I could not write this book without showcasing Fry’s marvelous legacy of advertising and packaging images. Fry’s was an early pioneer of colour printing for their labels and the use of famous contemporary artists for their advertising, over 200 of which are included. It is a fitting epitaph to one of Bristol’s best-known contributions to the world.
John Bradley worked for Cadbury’s from 1979 to 2003, moving to Cadbury Canada in 1996 to become Vice-President of Marketing. He now works in the advertising and marketing industry in Canada.
He has also written the first authorised full history of Cadbury’s, Cadbury’s Purple Reign (John Wiley & Sons, 2008), as well as co-authoring a business book, Store Wars: The Worldwide Battle for Mindspace and Shelfspace, Online and In-Store.
In 2010 he published a humorous self-help book about living with Crohn’s disease, which he has had since his early 20s. The Foul Bowel: 101 Ways to Survive and Thrive With Crohn’s Disease. You can read his blog about this at www.foulbowel.com
Fry’s Chocolate Dream: The Rise and fall of a Chocolate Empire is available from Amazon.co.uk and other online outlets and should soon be in most bookshops in Bristol and Bath.
The Day the Music Died
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Ritchie Valens, the teen signing sensation who perished in a plane crash with Buddy Holly and the Big Bopper. At 28 years old, the Big Bopper (originally J.P. Richardson) was the oldest of the three, and Holly and Valens were just 22 and 17 respectively. The loss of such talents at such a young age led singer-songwriter Don McLean to label the event “The Day the Music Died.”
While the song doesn’t include mention of their names, McLean has said that he was inspired both by Holly’s music, as well as the way he felt his life — and the country, as it headed into the 1960s,
On 3rd Feb 1959, 22-year-old Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper, and Ritchie Valens, aged 17, died in a plane crash shortly after takeoff from Clear Lake, Iowa. The pilot of the single-engine Beechcraft Bonanza was also killed. Holly hired the plane after heating problems developed on his tour bus. All three were traveling to Fargo, North Dakota, for the next show on their Winter Dance Party Tour which Holly had planned to make money after the break-up of his band, The Crickets, in the previous year.
Dennis Carl Wilson (December 4, 1944 – December 28, 1983) was an American drummer, singer and songwriter. He is best known as a founding member of the rock band The Beach Boys, alongside his brothers, Brian and Carl, cousin, Mike Love, and Al Jardine. Wilson was a member of the band from its formation until his death in 1983, recording twenty-four studio albums. In 1977, he released a solo album, Pacific Ocean Blue, to widespread critical acclaim.
Born in Inglewood, California, Dennis was the middle brother of fellow Beach Boys members Brian Wilson and Carl Wilson. Dennis Wilson was also the only regular surfer of the group, and his personal life exemplified the beach lifestyle that the group’s early songs often celebrated. His prominence in the group as a writer and lead vocalist increased as their careers went on into the late 1960s and 1970s.
In 1968, Dennis Wilson was driving through Malibu when he noticed two female hitchhikers, Patricia Krenwinkel and Ella Jo Bailey. He picked them up and dropped them off at their destination. Later on Wilson noticed the same two girls hitchhiking again. This time he took them to his home at 14400 Sunset Boulevard near Will Rogers Park.
Wilson then went to a recording session. When he returned at around 3 a.m., he was met in his driveway by a stranger, Charles Manson. When Wilson walked into his home, about a dozen people were occupying the premises, most of them female. Wilson became fascinated by Manson and his followers; the "Manson Family" lived with Wilson for a period of time afterwards at his expense. In late 1968, Wilson reported to journalists,
"I told them [the girls] about our involvement with the Maharishi and they told me they too had a guru, a guy named Charlie who’d recently come out of jail after 12 years. … He drifted into crime, but when I met him I found he had great musical ideas. We’re writing together now. He’s dumb, in some ways, but I accept his approach and have learnt from him."
Initially impressed by Manson’s songwriting talent, Wilson introduced him to a few friends in the music business, including Terry Melcher (the son of Doris Day), whose home at 10050 Cielo Drive would later be rented by director Roman Polanski and his wife, actress Sharon Tate, and Manson family members would later murder Tate and several others at the home.
Manson held recording sessions at the home studio of Dennis’ brother, Brian Wilson. Those recordings, if they exist, have never been released. The Beach Boys released a Manson song, originally titled "Cease To Exist" but reworked as "Never Learn Not to Love", as a single B-side and on the album 20/20.
As Dennis Wilson became increasingly aware of Manson’s volatile nature and growing tendency to violence, he finally made a break from the friendship by simply moving out of the house and leaving Manson there. When Manson subsequently sought further contact (and money), he left a bullet with Wilson’s housekeeper to be delivered with a cryptic message, which Wilson perceived as a threat. In August 1969, Manson Family members perpetrated the Tate/LaBianca murders. Wilson rarely discussed his involvement with the Manson Family, and usually became upset when the subject was broached.
At the time the Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed former convict, who had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson, a founding member and the drummer of the Beach Boys. After Manson was charged with the crimes of which he was later convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by him were released commercially. Various musicians, including Guns N’ Roses, White Zombie and Marilyn Manson, have covered some of his songs.
Manson’s death sentence was automatically commuted to life imprisonment when a 1972 decision by the Supreme Court of California temporarily eliminated the state’s death penalty.
California’s eventual reinstatement of capital punishment did not affect Manson, who is currently incarcerated at Corcoran State Prison.
Succeeding years saw Wilson battling alcohol abuse. Smoking had taken a toll on his voice, although the resultant gravelly effect helped define him as a singer. On December 28, 1983, shortly after his 39th birthday, Wilson drowned at Marina Del Rey, Los Angeles, after drinking all day and diving in the afternoon to recover items he had thrown overboard at the marina from his yacht three years prior.
Dennis Wilson’s body was buried at sea off the California coast by the U.S. Coast Guard on January 4, 1984. His song "Farewell My Friend" was played at the funeral. As non-veterans of the Coast Guard and Navy are not allowed to be buried at sea unless cremated, Dennis’ burial was possible due to the intervention of President Reagan.
the Beach Boys
Carl Dean Wilson Born: 12/21/1946. Died: 2/7/1998. Age: 51. Cause of death: cancer.
Noted For: singer and guitarist; founding member of The Beach Boys (1962-98). As the group’s leader after 1965, his death marked the end of the Beach Boys. Sang lead on "God Only Knows" (1966). Brother of Brian and Dennis Wilson and cousin of Mike Love.
You’re fired! Three Beach Boys founding members dumped by the band’s frontman Mike Love… via PUBLIC statement
2012 – Three of the founding members of the Beach Boys have been unceremoniously dumped midway through their UK tour.
Brian Wilson, Al Jardine and David Marks were informed of the news via a statement issued by Mike Love – the band’s frontman and Wilson’s cousin – that the tour would be continuing without them.
Their places will be filled by Bruce Johnston – a second generation member – and a selection of session musicians.
The statement read: ‘The post-50th anniversary configuration will not include Brian Wilson, Al Jardine and David Marks. The 50th Reunion Tour was designed to be a set tour with a beginning and an end to mark a special 50-year milestone for the band.’
This shocking announcement came after the reunited members had recorded their first studio album in 20 years, featuring entirely original music.
Wilson, 70, who is very much the musical maestro responsible for writing most of the band’s early singles and albums, told CNN just how confusing the situation is.
He said: ‘I’m disappointed and can’t understand why Love doesn’t want to tour with Al, David and me. We are out here having so much fun. After all, we are the real Beach Boys.’
Already a fan letter of protest has been started to reunite the original members on tour which Al Jardine, 71, has linked to through his Twitter account.
Addressed to Mike Love, the petition reads: ‘In order to preserve the validity of ‘The Beach Boys’ as a whole, and not as a ‘money saving, stripped down version’ that only contains 1 original member, and 1 member that joined in 1965, we ask you to re-instate the 3 other members to the touring group for your final years performing.’
Robert Nesta "Bob" Marley OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican reggae singer-songwriter, musician, and guitarist who achieved international fame and acclaim.
Starting out in 1963 with the group the Wailers, he forged a distinctive songwriting and vocal style that would later resonate with audiences worldwide. The Wailers would go on to release some of the earliest reggae records with producer Lee Scratch Perry. After the Wailers disbanded in 1974, Marley pursued a solo career which culminated in the release of the album Exodus in 1977 which established his worldwide reputation and produced his status as one of the world’s best-selling artists of all time, with sales of more than 75 million albums and singles. He was a committed Rastafari who infused his music with a sense of spirituality.
In July 1977, Marley was found to have a type of malignant melanoma under the nail of a toe. Contrary to urban legend, this lesion was not primarily caused by an injury during a football match that year, but was instead a symptom of the already-existing cancer. Marley turned down his doctors’ advice to have his toe amputated, citing his religious beliefs, and instead the nail and nail bed were removed and a skin graft taken from his thigh to cover the area. Despite his illness, he continued touring and was in the process of scheduling a world tour in 1980.
The album Uprising was released in May 1980, on which "Redemption Song" is, in particular, considered to be about Marley coming to terms with his mortality. The band completed a major tour of Europe, where it played its biggest concert to 100,000 people in Milan. After the tour Marley went to America, where he performed two shows at Madison Square Garden as part of the Uprising Tour.
Bob Marley appeared at the Stanley Theater (now called The Benedum Center For The Performing Arts) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 23 September 1980; it would be his last concert.
Shortly afterwards, Marley’s health deteriorated as the cancer had spread throughout his body. The rest of the tour was cancelled and Marley sought treatment at the Bavarian clinic of Josef Issels, where he received a controversial type of cancer therapy (Issels treatment) partly based on avoidance of certain foods, drinks, and other substances. After fighting the cancer without success for eight months Marley boarded a plane for his home in Jamaica.
While Marley was flying home from Germany to Jamaica, his vital functions worsened. After landing in Miami, Florida, he was taken to the hospital for immediate medical attention. Bob Marley died on 11 May 1981 at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami (now University of Miami Hospital) at the age of 36. The spread of melanoma to his lungs and brain caused his death. His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can’t buy life." Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica on 21 May 1981, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari tradition. He was buried in a chapel near his birthplace with his red Gibson Les Paul (some accounts say it was a Fender Stratocaster).
On 21 May 1981, Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga delivered the final funeral eulogy to Marley, declaring:
His voice was an omnipresent cry in our electronic world. His sharp features, majestic looks, and prancing style a vivid etching on the landscape of our minds. Bob Marley was never seen. He was an experience which left an indelible imprint with each encounter. Such a man cannot be erased from the mind. He is part of the collective consciousness of the nation.
Minnie Julia Riperton Rudolph (November 8, 1947 – July 12, 1979), known professionally as Minnie Riperton, was an American singer-songwriter best known for her 1975 single "Lovin’ You". She was married to songwriter and music producer Richard Rudolph from 1972 until her death in 1979. They had two children: music engineer Marc Rudolph and actress/comedienne Maya Rudolph.
Riperton grew up on Chicago’s South Side. As a child, she studied music, drama, and dance at Chicago’s Lincoln Center. In her teen years, she sang lead vocals for the Chicago-based girl group, The Gems. Her early affiliation with the legendary Chicago-based Chess Records afforded her the opportunity to sing backup for various established artists such as Etta James, Fontella Bass, Ramsey Lewis, Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry, and Muddy Waters. While at Chess, Riperton also sang lead for the experimental rock/soul group Rotary Connection, from 1967 to 1971. In 1969 Riperton, along with Rotary Connection, played in the first Catholic Rock Mass at the Liturgical Conference National Convention, Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, WI, produced by James F. Colaianni. On April 4, 1975, Riperton reached the apex of her career with her #1 single, "Lovin’ You". The single was the last release from her 1974 gold album entitled Perfect Angel.
In January 1976, Riperton was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a radical mastectomy.
Riperton revealed on the The Tonight Show on August 24, 1976, that she had undergone a mastectomy due to breast cancer.
By the time of diagnosis, the cancer had metastasized and she was given about six months to live. Despite the grim prognosis, she continued recording and touring. She was one of the first celebrities to go public with her breast cancer diagnosis, but did not disclose she was terminally ill. In 1977, she became a spokesperson for the American Cancer Society. In 1978, she received the American Cancer Society’s Courage Award which was presented to her at the White House by President Jimmy Carter. She died at age 31 on July 12, 1979.
Roger Keith "Syd" Barrett (6 January 1946 – 7 July 2006) was an English musician, composer, singer, songwriter and painter. A founder member of the band Pink Floyd, Barrett was the lead vocalist, guitarist and principal songwriter in its early years and is credited with naming the band. Barrett left Pink Floyd in April 1968 and was briefly hospitalized amid speculation of mental illness exacerbated by drug use.
Barrett’s innovative guitar work and exploration of experimental techniques such as dissonance, distortion and feedback influenced many musicians, including David Bowie, Brian Eno and Jimmy Page. His recordings are also noted for their strongly English-accented vocal delivery. After leaving music, Barrett continued with painting and dedicated himself to gardening. Biographies began appearing in the 1980s. Pink Floyd wrote and recorded several tributes to him, most notably the 1975 album Wish You Were Here, which included "Shine On You Crazy Diamond", a homage to Barrett.
After suffering from diabetes for several years, Barrett died at home in Cambridge on 7 July 2006, aged 60. The cause of death was pancreatic cancer. The occupation on his death certificate was "retired musician". He was cremated, with his ashes given to a family member or friend. In 2006, his home in St. Margaret’s Square, Cambridge, was put on the market and reportedly attracted considerable interest.
After over 100 showings, many by fans, it was sold to a French couple who bought it simply because they liked it; reportedly they knew nothing about Barrett. On 28 November 2006, Barrett’s other possessions were sold at an auction at Cheffins auction house in Cambridge, raising £120,000 for charity.
Items sold included paintings, scrapbooks and everyday items that Barrett had decorated. NME produced a tribute issue to Barrett a week later with a photo of him on the cover. In an interview with The Sunday Times, Barrett’s sister revealed that he had written a book: "He read very deeply about the history of art and actually wrote an unpublished book about it, which I’m too sad to read at the moment. But he found his own mind so absorbing that he didn’t want to be distracted."
According to local newspapers, Barrett left approximately £1.7 million to his two brothers and two sisters. This sum was apparently largely acquired from royalties from Pink Floyd compilations and live recordings featuring songs he had written while with the band. A tribute concert called Games for May was held at the Barbican Centre, London on 10 May 2007 with Robyn Hitchcock, Captain Sensible, Damon Albarn,
Chrissie Hynde, Kevin Ayers and his Pink Floyd bandmates performing. A series of events called The City Wakes was held in Cambridge in October 2008 to celebrate Barrett’s life, art and music. Barrett’s sister, Rosemary Breen, supported this, the first-ever series of official events in memory of her brother. After the festival’s success, arts charity Escape Artists announced plans to create a centre in Cambridge, using art to help people suffering from mental health problems.
Andrew Roy "Andy" Gibb (5 March 1958 – 10 March 1988) was an English singer, musician, performer and teen idol who was the younger brother of Barry, Robin and Maurice Gibb. Andy came to international prominence in the late 1970s with three singles that reached #1 in the United States: "I Just Want to Be Your Everything", "(Love Is) Thicker Than Water", and "Shadow Dancing". Andy’s success was brief, as he battled drug addiction and depression and died shortly after turning 30.
the last surviving Bee Gee
2013 The worst part of losing my brothers? We weren’t even friends at the end: In a soul-baring confession, Barry Gibb tells of the guilt, remorse and loneliness of being the last of the Bee Gees.
Barry Gibb reveals he felt ‘pretty isolated’ without Robin and Maurice. The 66-year-old says that he always thought Robin knew he was dying. Loss of his brothers has made Barry very conscious of his own health.
‘You see, it wasn’t just the loss of my brothers, it was the fact we didn’t really get on. And so I’ve lost all of my brothers without being friends with them.
‘When Maurice passed, Robin and I just didn’t feel like the Bee Gees anymore, because the Bee Gees were the three of us.
‘So while Robin went around saying “I’ll always be a Bee Gee”, he didn’t really want that: he wanted to be Robin Gibb, solo artist. Deep inside, I think that was so. That was the competition.’
Barry realised that, as brothers, he and Robin were becoming more distant from each other.
‘During the last five years, Robin and I could not connect in any way. A similar situation, I can imagine, would probably be Lennon and McCartney. That same kind of distance occurred between them. The fact that you couldn’t get over obstacles or issues in your life.
‘What drove me down was that we didn’t get a chance to really say goodbye. The only time I felt we made up was when I kissed Robin on the head the last time I saw him before he died.
‘I didn’t get to see Andy before he died, and I never got to Maurice before he died. Mo died in two days, so that was very quick and a great shock to everyone.
‘Robin’s process took two years. I won’t go that way.
If something like that is ever diagnosed with me, I’ll find the funniest, most humorous way of checking out. Absolutely I will not be lying in a bed stuck on life support.
‘So when Robin died, I felt all those things: guilt, remorse, regret.
‘There was so much more to us, but we didn’t see it. There was so much more life in us that we didn’t attempt. So much neurosis that we could have avoided between us all. Because everyone wanted to be the individual star. And we never knew what we were.’
Barry, 66, with his trademark shoulder-length hair turned silver-grey, says that he always thought Robin knew he was dying, even though he insisted that he had beaten liver and colon cancer.
‘I didn’t realise Robin was seriously ill for about a year, when I began to see the pictures of him in the paper. I thought something’s wrong here — but I couldn’t get any answers out of anyone.
Karen Carpenter’s velvet voice charmed millions in the 70s… but behind the wholesome image she was in turmoil. Desperate to look slim on stage – and above all desperate to please the domineering mother who preferred her brother – she became the first celebrity victim of anorexia.
The Carpenters were one of the biggest-selling American musical acts of all time. Between 1970 and 1984 brother and sister Richard and Karen Carpenter had 17 top 20 hits, including "Goodbye to Love", "Yesterday Once More", "Close to You" and "Rainy Days and Mondays". They notched up 10 gold singles, nine gold albums, one multi-platinum album and three Grammy awards. Karen’s velvety voice and Richard’s airy melodies and meticulously crafted arrangements stood in direct contrast to the louder, wilder rock dominating the rest of the charts at the time, yet they became immensely popular, selling more than 100m records.
On February 4, 1983, less than a month before her 33rd birthday, Carpenter suffered heart failure at her parents’ home in Downey, California. She was taken to Downey Community Hospital, where she was pronounced dead 20 minutes later.
The Los Angeles coroner gave the cause of death as "heartbeat irregularities brought on by chemical imbalances associated with anorexia nervosa." Under the anatomical summary, the first item was heart failure, with anorexia as second. The third finding was cachexia, which is extremely low weight and weakness and general body decline associated with chronic disease.
Her divorce was scheduled to have been finalized that day. The autopsy stated that Carpenter’s death was the result of emetine cardiotoxicity due to anorexia nervosa, revealing that she had poisoned herself with ipecac syrup, an emetic often used to induce vomiting in cases of overdosing or poisoning.
Carpenter’s use of ipecac syrup was later disputed by Agnes and Richard, who both stated that they never found empty vials of ipecac in her apartment and have denied that there was any concrete evidence that she had been vomiting.
Richard has also expressed that he believes Karen was not willing to ingest ipecac syrup because of the potential damage that both the syrup and excessive vomiting would do to her vocal cords and that she relied on laxatives alone to maintain her low body weight.
Carpenter’s funeral service took place on February 8, 1983, at the Downey United Methodist Church. Dressed in a rose-colored suit, Carpenter lay in an open white casket. Over 1,000 mourners passed through to say goodbye, among them her friends Dorothy Hamill, Olivia Newton-John, Petula Clark, and Dionne Warwick. Carpenter’s estranged husband Tom attended her funeral, where he took off his wedding ring and placed it inside the casket.
She was buried at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Cypress, California. In 2003, Richard Carpenter had Karen re-interred, along with their parents, in the Carpenter family mausoleum at the Pierce Brothers Valley Oaks Memorial Park in Westlake Village, California, which is closer to his Southern California home.
Philip Parris "Phil" Lynott; 20 August 1949 – 4 January 1986) was an Irish musician, singer and songwriter. His most commercially successful group was Thin Lizzy, of which he was a founding member, the principal songwriter, lead vocalist and bassist. He later also found success as a solo artist.
Growing up in Dublin in the 1960s, Lynott fronted several bands as a lead vocalist, most notably Skid Row alongside Gary Moore, before learning the bass guitar and forming Thin Lizzy in 1969. After initial success with Whiskey in the Jar, the band found strong commercial success in the mid-1970s with hits such as "The Boys Are Back in Town", "Jailbreak" and "Waiting for an Alibi", and became a popular live attraction due to the combination of Lynott’s vocal and songwriting skills and the use of dual lead guitars. Towards the end of the 1970s, Lynott also embarked upon a solo career, published two books of poetry, and after Thin Lizzy disbanded, he assembled and fronted the band Grand Slam, of which he was the leader until it folded in 1985.
He subsequently had major UK success with Moore with the song "Out in the Fields", followed by a minor hit "Nineteen", before his death on 4 January 1986. He remains a popular figure in the rock world, and in 2005, a statue was erected in his memory.
On 14 February 1980, Lynott married Caroline Crowther, the daughter of British comedian Leslie Crowther. He met her when she was working for Tony Brainsby in the late 1970s.
They had two children: Sarah (b. 19 December 1978, for whom the eponymous 1979 song was written, and Cathleen (b. 29 July 1980, for whom the eponymous 1982 Lynott solo song was written. The marriage fell apart during 1984 after Lynott’s drug use escalated.
Lynott also had a son, born in 1968, who had been put up for adoption. In 2003, Macdaragh Lambe learned that Lynott was his biological father, and this was confirmed by Philomena Lynott in a newspaper interview in July 2010.
Born in England and raised in Ireland, Lynott always considered himself to be Irish. His friend and Thin Lizzy bandmate Scott Gorham said in 2013: "Phil was so proud of being Irish. No matter where he went in the world, if we were talking to a journalist and they got something wrong about Ireland, he’d give the guy a history lesson. It meant a lot to him."
Lynott was a passionate football fan, a keen Manchester United supporter, and United and Northern Ireland star George Best was one of Lynott’s best friends.
Lynott was also a team captain on the popular 80s BBC quiz show Pop Quiz, hosted by Mike Read.
Lynott’s last years were dogged by drug and alcohol dependency leading to his collapse on Christmas Day 1985, at his home in Kew. He was discovered by his mother, who was not aware of his dependence on heroin. She contacted Caroline, who knew about it, and immediately knew the problem was serious. After Caroline drove him to a drug clinic at Clouds House in East Knoyle, near Warminster, he was taken to Salisbury Infirmary where he was diagnosed as suffering from septicaemia.
Despite regaining consciousness enough to speak to his mother, his condition worsened by the start of the new year and he was put on a respirator. He died of pneumonia and heart failure due to septicaemia in the hospital’s intensive care unit on 4 January 1986, at the age of 36.
Lynott’s funeral was held at St Elizabeth’s Church, Richmond on 9 January 1986, with most of Thin Lizzy’s ex members in attendance, followed by a second service at Howth Parish Church on 11th. He was buried in St Fintan’s Cemetery, Dublin.
1000 points of zombies ready for battle
Image by jon_a_ross
A battle of magic: 1000 points of Vampire Counts in the form of two necromantic brothers and their horde’s of zombie followers vs. 1000 points of Tzeentch worshipping beasts of chaos.
Six turns (plus one), beasts of chaos deploy first and go first.
jon-a-ross.livejournal.com/948428.html For the following battle report with pictures:
This battle started out as an experiment to see if a horde of zombies could be a threat, an actually working army. In theory they are cheap enough that you can field a silly number of them, overwhelming mortal armies and dragging them down. To test this out I build a 1000 point vampire counts force using 2 necromancers and 160 zombies. I have 180 zombie models, so with 20 to spare I was all set to roll.
To face the zombies I thought I would see how my beasts of Chaos force works. I have never fielded beasts of Chaos before (and vampire counts only in small warbands battles) so this was going to be an interesting match.
The beasts of chaos got two 8 gor 12 ungor herds, one of which was sent to ambush. Leading the force was a wargor of Tzeentch in Chaos armour and shield, inside a 20 beast unit of Bestigor’s of Tzeentch (Tzaangors). Thinking about it the Tzaangors might have had a magical standard, but if they did I forgot to use it during the game. Rounding out the beasts of Chaos force was a mutated chaos giant, for punch. It turns out to have been an excellent call.
The vampire counts were all zombies as I’ve stated. So the 4 40 corpse zombie hordes with standard and musician would be the bulk. But there was one minor necromancer with the book that has the dancing zombie’s bound spell and the heal undead spell. And the final necromancer general with all three necromantic spells, the nightshroud armour and the scepter of raising the dead mounted on a corpse cart to lead them. I remembered a little late into the game that the general could share his leadership with the troops, something that if I had recalled would’ve put the general even closer to the action and trying to keep all the zombies close enough to get both that bonus and the ability to march.
The battlefield was built to be the site of some fallen settlement, already reclaimed by nature. A small grove of trees, some rocks marking the foundations of buildings and a evil monolith in the center. Looking at the field during the play I found the zombie side wishing their was less terrain on the field. With such large units they were having trouble getting more then one unit into combat at a time, and to win the zombies really needed to double team as much as possible.
In general the beasts of chaos failed their leadership to charge tests only a couple of times, but those moments when they couldn’t get up the nerve to strike bought the zombies time to re-enforce their numbers. Magic was untrustworthy in the game, as I rolled three miscasts using level one and two wizards. The Tzeentch wargor had two miscasts and the zombie general one. I also recall at least two unstoppable force castings. Otherwise both sides had enough dispel dice to counter all but one of the spells from the other. The necromancers had two bound spells and four power dice, but usually I would cast one 2 dice spell off the general and then one single die spell off each necromancer (usually the heal undead spell) followed by the bound spells.
The Tzeentch wargor had rolled up the flaming shield spell as well as a spell that could cause a unit to strike itself, only if that unit isn’t immune to psychology. As the undead are that spell was traded in for the default magic missile zap. In the game only two zaps from the magic missile were successful, but the spell did cast three times successfully. The flaming shield never was cast, it was either dispelled or miscast or even not cast at all (throwing it last after the magic missile using two dice). Magic for the beastmen was not a tipping point.
Turn 1 sees the beasts of chaos rush forward. I was thinking about having the Tzaangors meet up with the beastmen herd and catch the zombies in a pincher movement, but I didn’t want to have my beastmen caught from behind either. I waited to see how fast the zombies would approach. The chaos giant was heading off to deal with the flanking zombies. Some zombies die from magic, but their loss is barely noticed.
The zombies shuffle forward, in such large numbers as to be a threat. The corpse cart and general keep between the large zombie hordes and even summon up some more zombies to join in. The zombies on the flank alone move forward a bit, while the zombies with the necromancer escort are magically encouraged forward.
Turn 2 has the Tzaangors fail their leadership test to charge the fear causing zombies, the general summons the ambushing beastmen herd and the giant charges the zombies on the flank. The beastmen arrive right behind the corpse cart as planned and will force it into a defensive position. The magic phase sees the first miscast from the Tzeentch Wargor and ends. The giant starts jumping up and down on the zombies, something he will do for a while yet.
The zombies move forward on their second turn, pushing forward as their battle plan has already been drawn. The necromancer general summons up and re-enforces a zombie horde to stand between himself and the approaching beastmen. The zombies fighting the giant are not as lucky and find themselves reduced to only four.
Turn 3 sees the wargor of Tzeentch get his men to agree to charge the zombies. The giant will jump on the last of the zombies, and the beastmen herd on the other side will successfully charge the zombies over there. The ambushing beastmen herd will fail to find the courage to charge the zombies summoned up just to deal with them. So far over 40 zombies will have been killed but they do seem to keep on coming.
The zombies charge the beastmen herd that was ambushing them. But even as the beastmen fail their leadership they are able to do enough to win combat against the zombies, who then fail their leadership roll badly (in part because the general was too far away) and lose a number of their troops. The other zombie conflicts continue to push forward, but non zombie losses are light. The necromancer who as babysitting the zombies on the flank runs and in his haste losses the bookmark for his spellbook, casting the dancing one last time on himself to get away.
Turn 4 starts with the giant rushing after the funny little man who dropped stuff. The wargor miscasts for a second time, this time blowing up three of his men, three zombies and taking a wound for his trouble. The beastmen in combat with the zombies keep cutting them down, slashing and cutting, cutting and slashing.
The necromancer doesn’t have much like this round either, with a miscast of his own damaging both himself and the corpse cart he’s on. The zombies are able to charge the beastmen on the flank, hoping to just break them but they past their leadership. Then the flanking charge is hoped to be enough. It isn’t, the beastmen are able to push to a tie on this round of battle. Worse yet, both the zombies slowing down the ambushing beastmen herd as well as the zombies fighting the Tzaangors are both destroyed.
Turn 5 sees three out of the four beastmen units free of attackers and able to push forward to break into the zombie command structure. Only their courage fails them. Both the beastmen herd and the Tzaangors fail their leadership tests to charge fear causing units, leaving the zombie commanders alive and well. One necromancer takes a magic missile but he keeps going with his two wounds. The beastmen herd under the weight of two zombie forces breaks, taking 38 hits for running away from so many zombies.
The zombies follow up on this success by sending the smaller zombie group after the fleeing beastmen, who run further. The rest of the zombies then regroup and move to support the general, turning around and heading back into the center of the battlefield.
Turn six was a bit of a disappointment for both sides. Nothing on the beastmen side was in charge range or passed their leadership tests to charge. The fleeing beastmen kept fleeing. The zombies were able to get seven or so of the mindless buggers to charge the giant but no wounds and all wiped out in a single combat phase.
At the end of the formal game the match was clearly for the beasts of chaos. They had one unit fleeing but all three of the others were mostly undamaged. But the zombies saw a chance that one more turn could change that. It would have to be a perfect turn, but it was possible for a zombie victory.
Turn seven therefore saw the beastmen rally on the flank, as well as the giant and the other beastman herd charge. The giant just runs up to the necromancer and yells at him, ending that battle but causing no wounds to either side. The beastmen that charged the zombies failed to take into account the zombies striking first and the zombies are amazingly able to win the combat. The beastmen break and lose a number of their men to the zombies as they pull down the fleeing troops.
But the zombies do not fair much better. One group of zombies has finally worked it’s way around the monolith and stands ready to surprise the Tzaangors. If the Tzaangors break from combat, as they have already passed the leadership test to be charged by the zombies, they will be lost upon contact with the zombies. The corpse cart takes a direct hit from the giant’s club and even it’s regeneration isn’t enough to put it together. But the necromancer riding it was unharmed, but unable to damage the giant either. The zombies on the flank are lost in their reckless charge against the beastmen (I was hoping for a failed leadership test or similar to give the zombies a chance). And in the end, the zombies against the tzaangors are not enough to break them. It wasn’t even close.
The battle goes to the beasts of chaos.