A few nice weight loss images I found:
Image from page 726 of “A practical treatise on diseases of the skin, for the use of students and practitioners” (1897)
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Title: A practical treatise on diseases of the skin, for the use of students and practitioners
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors: Hyde, James Nevins, 1840-1910 Montgomery, Frank Hugh, 1862- joint author
Publisher: Philadelphia, New York, Lea brothers & co.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress
Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.
Text Appearing Before Image:
f Bazin).These infiltrations may disappear, leaving very peculiar circumscribedvitiliginous plaques where they existed; or the tumors described belowmay develop from them; or they may be in full development, furnish- NEW-GROWTHS. 693 ing no tumors, when the latter are growing with mushroom-like rapidityfrom other parts of the body, more particularly over the face; or,lastly, defined circumscribed areas, destitute of pigment, resemblingleucodermatous patches, may occur in the skin where there has beenno warty plaque. In a variable period of time the characteristic tumors of the diseaseappear upon the face, scalp, chest, and other portions of the body(Fig. 91). They are bean- to palm-sized; whitish; pinkish, or pale-reddish in hue ; well-rounded, and distinctly circumscribed. Oftenthey are like flat buttons, movable with the skin. They may thendisappear by absorption while others appear; they may degenerate byerosion leading to superficial ulceration; or they may melt down into Fig. 91.
Text Appearing After Image:
Mycosis fungoides (from an oil painting made at the bedside). deep losses of tissue by ulceration. Coincidently the lymphatic glandsmay enlarge, and this adenopathy, as in case of the tumors, may sub-side to be replaced later by similar involvement of the same or of otherglands. When the tumors have attained maturity and before involution hasbegun, their appearance, especially upon the face, is characteristic.They are smooth, moderately firm, sausage-like in shape, often tabu-lated, of a peculiar reddish hue, and produce when numerous, a lepra-like deformity, closing the eyes by their size or weight, producing theleonine brow and the elephantiasic ear. In the authors case illustratedin the appended cut,1 the body of the patient was extensively coveredwith tumors of all sizes, resembling those seen on the face. The general condition of the patient at first seems unaltered; later, 1 Edinburgh Medical Journal, 1883-1884, xxix. p. 592. 694 DISEASES OF THE SKIN. when the tumors ulcerate, e
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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Boeing 367-80 (prototype 707, first jet airliner), and De Havilland Canada DHC-1A Chipmunk Pennzoil Special
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | De Havilland-Canada DHC-1A Chipmunk, Pennzoil Special:
De Havilland originally designed the Chipmunk after World War II as a primary trainer to replace the venerable Tiger Moth. Among the tens of thousands of pilots who trained in or flew the Chipmunk for pleasure was veteran aerobatic and movie pilot Art Scholl. He flew his Pennzoil Special at air shows throughout the 1970s and early ’80s, thrilling audiences with his skill and showmanship and proving that the design was a top-notch aerobatic aircraft.
Art Scholl purchased the DHC-1A in 1968. He modified it to a single-seat airplane with a shorter wingspan and larger vertical fin and rudder, and made other changes to improve its performance. Scholl was a three-time member of the U.S. Aerobatic Team, an air racer, and a movie and television stunt pilot. At air shows, he often flew with his dog Aileron on his shoulder or taxied with him standing on the wing.
Gift of the Estate of Arthur E. Scholl
De Havilland Canada Ltd.
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Wingspan: 9.4 m (31 ft)
Length: 7.9 m (26 ft)
Height: 2.1 m (7 ft 1 in)
Weight, empty: 717 kg (1,583 lb)
Weight, gross: 906 kg (2,000 lb)
Top speed: 265 km/h (165 mph)
Engine: Lycoming GO-435, 260 hp
Overall: Aluminum Monocoque Physical Description:Single-engine monoplane. Lycoming GO-435, 260 hp engine.
• • • • •
On July 15, 1954, a graceful, swept-winged aircraft, bedecked in brown and yellow paint and powered by four revolutionary new engines first took to the sky above Seattle. Built by the Boeing Aircraft Company, the 367-80, better known as the Dash 80, would come to revolutionize commercial air transportation when its developed version entered service as the famous Boeing 707, America’s first jet airliner.
In the early 1950s, Boeing had begun to study the possibility of creating a jet-powered military transport and tanker to complement the new generation of Boeing jet bombers entering service with the U.S. Air Force. When the Air Force showed no interest, Boeing invested million of its own capital to build a prototype jet transport in a daring gamble that the airlines and the Air Force would buy it once the aircraft had flown and proven itself. As Boeing had done with the B-17, it risked the company on one roll of the dice and won.
Boeing engineers had initially based the jet transport on studies of improved designs of the Model 367, better known to the public as the C-97 piston-engined transport and aerial tanker. By the time Boeing progressed to the 80th iteration, the design bore no resemblance to the C-97 but, for security reasons, Boeing decided to let the jet project be known as the 367-80.
Work proceeded quickly after the formal start of the project on May 20, 1952. The 367-80 mated a large cabin based on the dimensions of the C-97 with the 35-degree swept-wing design based on the wings of the B-47 and B-52 but considerably stiffer and incorporating a pronounced dihedral. The wings were mounted low on the fuselage and incorporated high-speed and low-speed ailerons as well as a sophisticated flap and spoiler system. Four Pratt & Whitney JT3 turbojet engines, each producing 10,000 pounds of thrust, were mounted on struts beneath the wings.
Upon the Dash 80’s first flight on July 15, 1954, (the 34th anniversary of the founding of the Boeing Company) Boeing clearly had a winner. Flying 100 miles per hour faster than the de Havilland Comet and significantly larger, the new Boeing had a maximum range of more than 3,500 miles. As hoped, the Air Force bought 29 examples of the design as a tanker/transport after they convinced Boeing to widen the design by 12 inches. Satisfied, the Air Force designated it the KC-135A. A total of 732 KC-135s were built.
Quickly Boeing turned its attention to selling the airline industry on this new jet transport. Clearly the industry was impressed with the capabilities of the prototype 707 but never more so than at the Gold Cup hydroplane races held on Lake Washington in Seattle, in August 1955. During the festivities surrounding this event, Boeing had gathered many airline representatives to enjoy the competition and witness a fly past of the new Dash 80. To the audience’s intense delight and Boeing’s profound shock, test pilot Alvin "Tex" Johnston barrel-rolled the Dash 80 over the lake in full view of thousands of astonished spectators. Johnston vividly displayed the superior strength and performance of this new jet, readily convincing the airline industry to buy this new airliner.
In searching for a market, Boeing found a ready customer in Pan American Airway’s president Juan Trippe. Trippe had been spending much of his time searching for a suitable jet airliner to enable his pioneering company to maintain its leadership in international air travel. Working with Boeing, Trippe overcame Boeing’s resistance to widening the Dash-80 design, now known as the 707, to seat six passengers in each seat row rather than five. Trippe did so by placing an order with Boeing for 20 707s but also ordering 25 of Douglas’s competing DC-8, which had yet to fly but could accommodate six-abreast seating. At Pan Am’s insistence, the 707 was made four inches wider than the Dash 80 so that it could carry 160 passengers six-abreast. The wider fuselage developed for the 707 became the standard design for all of Boeing’s subsequent narrow-body airliners.
Although the British de Havilland D.H. 106 Comet and the Soviet Tupolev Tu-104 entered service earlier, the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 were bigger, faster, had greater range, and were more profitable to fly. In October 1958 Pan American ushered the jet age into the United States when it opened international service with the Boeing 707 in October 1958. National Airlines inaugurated domestic jet service two months later using a 707-120 borrowed from Pan Am. American Airlines flew the first domestic 707 jet service with its own aircraft in January 1959. American set a new speed mark when it opened the first regularly-scheduled transcontinental jet service in 1959. Subsequent nonstop flights between New York and San Francisco took only 5 hours – 3 hours less than by the piston-engine DC-7. The one-way fare, including a surcharge for jet service, was 5.50, or 1 round trip. The flight was almost 40 percent faster and almost 25 percent cheaper than flying by piston-engine airliners. The consequent surge of traffic demand was substantial.
The 707 was originally designed for transcontinental or one-stop transatlantic range. But modified with extra fuel tanks and more efficient turbofan engines, the 707-300 Intercontinental series aircraft could fly nonstop across the Atlantic with full payload under any conditions. Boeing built 855 707s, of which 725 were bought by airlines worldwide.
Having launched the Boeing Company into the commercial jet age, the Dash 80 soldiered on as a highly successful experimental aircraft. Until its retirement in 1972, the Dash 80 tested numerous advanced systems, many of which were incorporated into later generations of jet transports. At one point, the Dash 80 carried three different engine types in its four nacelles. Serving as a test bed for the new 727, the Dash 80 was briefly equipped with a fifth engine mounted on the rear fuselage. Engineers also modified the wing in planform and contour to study the effects of different airfoil shapes. Numerous flap configurations were also fitted including a highly sophisticated system of "blown" flaps which redirected engine exhaust over the flaps to increase lift at low speeds. Fin height and horizontal stabilizer width was later increased and at one point, a special multiple wheel low pressure landing gear was fitted to test the feasibility of operating future heavy military transports from unprepared landing fields.
After a long and distinguished career, the Boeing 367-80 was finally retired and donated to the Smithsonian in 1972. At present, the aircraft is installated at the National Air and Space Museum’s new facility at Washington Dulles International Airport.
Gift of the Boeing Company
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Height 19′ 2": Length 73′ 10": Wing Span 129′ 8": Weight 33,279 lbs.
Prototype Boeing 707; yellow and brown.
carlo scarpa, architect: fondazione querini stampalia, venice 1961-1963. entrance bridge.
Image by seier+seier
fondazione querini stampalia, restoration of the palazzo ground floor, venice 1961-1963.
architect: carlo scarpa, 1906-1978.
ruskin poetically named the ground floor of venetian palazzi the sea story. it is exceptional in architectural history for having its formal entrance towards the water for arrival by boat, but has in general suffered from flooding, the loss of venetian culture and inevitable changes in traffic. in the fondazione querini stampalia, a renaissance palazzo left by will to the city as a museum and public library, the sea story was used mostly for storage, and its entrance faced a narrow alley, barely acknowledging its former greatness or its current civic importance.
when one of scarpa’s students became director of the fondazione, he called upon his old professor to clear things up. what scarpa did has been uniformly lauded as one of the finest examples of modern restoration, yet by 2013 the very elements we celebrate could as easily be described as failures.
the floodings and the lack of boats were answered by scarpa by inviting water itself into the building. at high tide, the sea enters through the gate, and we, the visitors, traverse the building on raised, concrete walkways. the relationship of venice to the water, this strangest of ecosystems and cultures, was never captured more intensely than here.
with the main entrance reserved for the sea and the old door to the alley out of the question, scarpa made the incredible decision to enter the building through a window – like a thief. as is true for criminals breaking in, when you enter without using the door, you leave the question of what is going to happen inside wide open.
scarpa used this freedom to be unapologetically modern in spite of and in contrast to the historical context which created the layered clarity, the building is now famous for. but it could as well be argued that it fits the fondazione itself which is open late and at odd hours, and works as an alternative to more conventional institutions.
like the partisan monument we looked at earlier, in which the onlookers are placed on pedestals, passively looking down on the statue of a murdered and tortured woman, the idea of entering through a window should be seen as another of scarpa’s great reversals – a reversal of function and expectation, closer perhaps to the uncertainties of modern literature than to architecture. I have at least one more of these to show you.
most importantly, scarpa had demonstrated, right in the heart of the city, that ruskin was wrong when he concluded that restoration invariably killed the building it was aiming to rescue. here was a new path, of its own time but with an attitude to history and place that was both knowing, respectful to a degree and endlessly playful. ‘the rate at which venice is going is about that of a lump of sugar in hot tea’, the very english ruskin once wrote. well, not if scarpa could help it.
my photo shows the light-weight bridge he leant against the window of entry. legend has it that the aging le corbusier, sailing under it, shouted who is this great artist?
so far, so triumphant. now, where was the failure?
and it is a small complaint, I know, that a student handing his old professor a commission is illegal by current EU law if there is as much as a cent of public money involved. regardless of any claims to genius, scarpa would have had to win his jobs in some form of competition or tender had he been alive today. we would never even have heard his name, as anyone who has studied his method or indeed his competition entries will testify.
it also isn’t hard to understand why scarpa’s idea of letting salt water into your client’s house – however controlled – never became the model for restoring the many troubled sea stories of venice. it was a happy one-off and one which we will never see repeated. that he was even able to propose it may help us understand why he lost so many jobs. did you know scarpa worked on the ca’ d’oro, the finest of all gothic palaces in venice, and was kicked out?
finally, I urge you to look at the new, third stage of the querini stampalia restoration, recently completed by mario botta. his spaces are entirely divorced from their wet surroundings, and their perfectly controlled climate could as well have us in dubai as in venice. I hurried through them with a feeling of mild claustrophobia, and wondered at how far we have come since scarpa’s intimate treatise on context, culture, climate and history.
botta’s work includes a new way in, leaving the bridge to the window as a mere appendage, an empty gesture unless you know the background. in painful irony, you enter through a gift shop, predictably loaded with scarpa books for the fans.
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