A few nice Weight Loss Products images I found:
Image from page 352 of “Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science” (1916)
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Title: Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors: Hawk, Philip B. (Philip Bovier), b. 1874
Publisher: Philadelphia, P. Blakiston’s son & co
Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons
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Text Appearing Before Image:
apo-rated. The drying is continued in a hot-airoven at a temperature below loo^C. and finallycompleted in a desiccator to constant weight. CroUs modification consists of subsequentrepeated extraction of the end-product ofevaporation with absolute ether. The com-bined extracts are filtered and the small filter paper is washed repeatedly with absolute ether. The combined extracts andwashings are evaporated and dried as before and then weighed. The piece of apparatus shown in Fig. 107, above was also devised by Crollto do away with the use of the pipette. ^ On closing the top with a finger andblowing into the mouthpiece, the upper stratum is forced out into the dish. Thebottle is washed by simply pouring the ether into the tube. This lessens thepossibility of accidental loss. ^ Original paper by Dr. .Arthur V. Meigs in Philadelphia Medical Times, July i, 1882.^ Croll: Biochem. Bull., 2, 509. 1913. If desired a cork with two tubes may be substituted for this somewhat complicatedapparatus.
Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 107.—Crolls Fatajppar.tus. 326 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY The accuracy of the method compared with that of the Soxhlet method,using the paper-coil modification and extracting until fresh portions of absoluteether gave no further trace of extractive material, is shown by the average difference on twelve samples of human milkbeing only 0.017 per cent less than by theSoxhlet and on seven samples cows milk beingonly 0.019 per cent less. The extreme differ-ences in case of the hrnnan milk were—0.004per cent and—0.044 per cent and in case ofthe cows milk—0.006 per cent and—0.068 percent. (f) Adams Paper-coil Method.—Introduceabout 5 c.c. of milk into a small beaker, quicklyascertain the weight to centigrams, stand a fat-free coU^ in the beaker and incline the vesseland rotate the coil in order to hasten the absorp-tion of the milk. Immediately upon the com-plete absorption of the milk remove the coU andagain quicklj^ ascertain the weight of the beaker.The difference in the we
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By LESLIE KAUFMAN
Published: February 25, 2009
Americans like their toilet tissue soft: exotic confections that are silken, thick and hot-air-fluffed.
The national obsession with soft paper has driven the growth of brands like Cottonelle Ultra, Quilted Northern Ultra and Charmin Ultra — which in 2008 alone increased its sales by 40 percent in some markets, according to Information Resources, Inc., a marketing research firm.
But fluffiness comes at a price: millions of trees harvested in North America and in Latin American countries, including some percentage of trees from rare old-growth forests in Canada. Although toilet tissue can be made at similar cost from recycled material, it is the fiber taken from standing trees that help give it that plush feel, and most large manufacturers rely on them.
The country’s soft-tissue habit — call it the Charmin effect — has not escaped the notice of environmentalists, who are increasingly making toilet tissue manufacturers the targets of campaigns. Greenpeace on Monday for the first time issued a national guide for American consumers that rates toilet tissue brands on their environmental soundness. With the recession pushing the price for recycled paper down and Americans showing more willingness to repurpose everything from clothing to tires, environmental groups want more people to switch to recycled toilet tissue.
“No forest of any kind should be used to make toilet paper,” said Dr. Allen Hershkowitz, a senior scientist and waste expert with the Natural Resource Defense Council.
In the United States, which is the largest market worldwide for toilet paper, tissue from 100 percent recycled fibers makes up less than 2 percent of sales for at-home use among conventional and premium brands. Most manufacturers use a combination of trees to make their products. According to RISI, an independent market analysis firm in Bedford, Mass., the pulp from one eucalyptus tree, a commonly used tree, produces as many as 1,000 rolls of toilet tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per capita a year.
Other countries are far less picky about toilet tissue. In many European nations, a rough sheet of paper is deemed sufficient. Other countries are also more willing to use toilet tissue made in part or exclusively from recycled paper.
In Europe and Latin America, products with recycled content make up about on average 20 percent of the at-home market, according to experts at the Kimberly Clark Corporation.
Environmentalists are focusing on tissue products for reasons besides the loss of trees. Turning a tree to paper requires more water than turning paper back into fiber, and many brands that use tree pulp use polluting chlorine-based bleach for greater whiteness. In addition, tissue made from recycled paper produces less waste tonnage — almost equaling its weight — that would otherwise go to a landfill.
Still, trees and tree quality remain a contentious issue. Although brands differ, 25 percent to 50 percent of the pulp used to make toilet paper in this country comes from tree farms in South America and the United States. The rest, environmental groups say, comes mostly from old, second-growth forests that serve as important absorbers of carbon dioxide, the main heat-trapping gas linked to global warming. In addition, some of the pulp comes from the last virgin North American forests, which are an irreplaceable habitat for a variety of endangered species, environmental groups say.
Greenpeace, the international conservation organization, contends that Kimberly Clark, the maker of two popular brands, Cottonelle and Scott, has gotten as much as 22 percent of its pulp from producers who cut trees in Canadian boreal forests where some trees are 200 years old.