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Image from page 352 of “Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science” (1916)

A few nice Weight Loss Products images I found:

Image from page 352 of “Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science” (1916)
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Identifier: practicalphysiol1916hawk
Title: Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors: Hawk, Philip B. (Philip Bovier), b. 1874
Subjects: Biochemistry
Publisher: Philadelphia, P. Blakiston’s son & co
Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons

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apo-rated. The drying is continued in a hot-airoven at a temperature below loo^C. and finallycompleted in a desiccator to constant weight. CroUs modification consists of subsequentrepeated extraction of the end-product ofevaporation with absolute ether. The com-bined extracts are filtered and the small filter paper is washed repeatedly with absolute ether. The combined extracts andwashings are evaporated and dried as before and then weighed. The piece of apparatus shown in Fig. 107, above was also devised by Crollto do away with the use of the pipette. ^ On closing the top with a finger andblowing into the mouthpiece, the upper stratum is forced out into the dish. Thebottle is washed by simply pouring the ether into the tube. This lessens thepossibility of accidental loss. ^ Original paper by Dr. .Arthur V. Meigs in Philadelphia Medical Times, July i, 1882.^ Croll: Biochem. Bull., 2, 509. 1913. If desired a cork with two tubes may be substituted for this somewhat complicatedapparatus.

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Fig. 107.—Crolls Fatajppar.tus. 326 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY The accuracy of the method compared with that of the Soxhlet method,using the paper-coil modification and extracting until fresh portions of absoluteether gave no further trace of extractive material, is shown by the average difference on twelve samples of human milkbeing only 0.017 per cent less than by theSoxhlet and on seven samples cows milk beingonly 0.019 per cent less. The extreme differ-ences in case of the hrnnan milk were—0.004per cent and—0.044 per cent and in case ofthe cows milk—0.006 per cent and—0.068 percent. (f) Adams Paper-coil Method.—Introduceabout 5 c.c. of milk into a small beaker, quicklyascertain the weight to centigrams, stand a fat-free coU^ in the beaker and incline the vesseland rotate the coil in order to hasten the absorp-tion of the milk. Immediately upon the com-plete absorption of the milk remove the coU andagain quicklj^ ascertain the weight of the beaker.The difference in the we

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Toilet Paper
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www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/science/earth/26charmin.html?_…

By LESLIE KAUFMAN
Published: February 25, 2009

Americans like their toilet tissue soft: exotic confections that are silken, thick and hot-air-fluffed.

The national obsession with soft paper has driven the growth of brands like Cottonelle Ultra, Quilted Northern Ultra and Charmin Ultra — which in 2008 alone increased its sales by 40 percent in some markets, according to Information Resources, Inc., a marketing research firm.

But fluffiness comes at a price: millions of trees harvested in North America and in Latin American countries, including some percentage of trees from rare old-growth forests in Canada. Although toilet tissue can be made at similar cost from recycled material, it is the fiber taken from standing trees that help give it that plush feel, and most large manufacturers rely on them.

The country’s soft-tissue habit — call it the Charmin effect — has not escaped the notice of environmentalists, who are increasingly making toilet tissue manufacturers the targets of campaigns. Greenpeace on Monday for the first time issued a national guide for American consumers that rates toilet tissue brands on their environmental soundness. With the recession pushing the price for recycled paper down and Americans showing more willingness to repurpose everything from clothing to tires, environmental groups want more people to switch to recycled toilet tissue.

“No forest of any kind should be used to make toilet paper,” said Dr. Allen Hershkowitz, a senior scientist and waste expert with the Natural Resource Defense Council.

In the United States, which is the largest market worldwide for toilet paper, tissue from 100 percent recycled fibers makes up less than 2 percent of sales for at-home use among conventional and premium brands. Most manufacturers use a combination of trees to make their products. According to RISI, an independent market analysis firm in Bedford, Mass., the pulp from one eucalyptus tree, a commonly used tree, produces as many as 1,000 rolls of toilet tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per capita a year.

Other countries are far less picky about toilet tissue. In many European nations, a rough sheet of paper is deemed sufficient. Other countries are also more willing to use toilet tissue made in part or exclusively from recycled paper.

In Europe and Latin America, products with recycled content make up about on average 20 percent of the at-home market, according to experts at the Kimberly Clark Corporation.

Environmentalists are focusing on tissue products for reasons besides the loss of trees. Turning a tree to paper requires more water than turning paper back into fiber, and many brands that use tree pulp use polluting chlorine-based bleach for greater whiteness. In addition, tissue made from recycled paper produces less waste tonnage — almost equaling its weight — that would otherwise go to a landfill.

Still, trees and tree quality remain a contentious issue. Although brands differ, 25 percent to 50 percent of the pulp used to make toilet paper in this country comes from tree farms in South America and the United States. The rest, environmental groups say, comes mostly from old, second-growth forests that serve as important absorbers of carbon dioxide, the main heat-trapping gas linked to global warming. In addition, some of the pulp comes from the last virgin North American forests, which are an irreplaceable habitat for a variety of endangered species, environmental groups say.

Greenpeace, the international conservation organization, contends that Kimberly Clark, the maker of two popular brands, Cottonelle and Scott, has gotten as much as 22 percent of its pulp from producers who cut trees in Canadian boreal forests where some trees are 200 years old.

Image from page 228 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph

A few nice Weight Loss Supplements images I found:

Image from page 228 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph
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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed02cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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se-corn of this country,but in the northern parts of the country it isextensively used as food for man. The huskedgrain constitutes GEOATS, and its meal oat-meal. The latter does not form a dough withwater, as wheaten meal or flour does. Oats consist of frGm24s to28gof husk, and74^ to 78g of grain. According to M. Payen,they contain of starch,6059^; azotised matter,1439£; saccharine and gummy matter, 925g ;fatty matter, 5*50{?; cellulose, 7602; silica andsaline matter, 325-g. The husks contain be-tween 6 and 7g of saline matter. (Prof.Norton.) The ash amounts to 218^, andconsists of potassa and soda, 2618g; lime,595g; magnesia, 995^ j oxide of iron, 40^;phosphoric acid, 4384^; sulphuric acid, 1045^;chlorine, -26^; silica, 2-67§; alumina, •QQ%.(Johnston.) The yield of oats is from 20 bushels peracre in poor soils, up to 60, 70, and even 80bushels per acre in rich soils. The weight perbushel varies from 35 to 45 lbs., and the pro-duct in meal is about one half the weight ofthe oats.

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Wliite oat-Loiig. sect., Snd and Srd coats not separable, a. Compound grains x 100; 5. Que do. x 500. A large proportion of the oats given tohorses passes off undigested. It has hencebeen proposed to prevent this loss, by eithercoarsely bruising them in a mill, or by pour-ing boiling water over them, and allowing them to macerate till cold, when they are tobe given to the horses without straining ofi.the water. It is stated on good authoritythat oats thus treated will not only fattenquicker, but go twice as far as without pre- U18 OATMEAL—OBSTRUCTION OP LOCAL AUTHORITY paration. Oat bruisers are now manufacturedby most agricultural iuipletnent makers. Under tlie microscope the oat is seen to con-sist of two or three envelopes ; the outer beingcomposed of lougitudinul cells j the second ob-liquely transverse and not very clearly seen ;in this, the cells are wanting in part or passinto the cells of the third coat; the third en-velope consists of a layer, usually single, ofcells, like

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Image from page 391 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph
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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed01cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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fat which hasbeen previously melted to the lowest possibletemperature, and then immediately allowed tocongeal. 5. Professor Wanklyn carefully weighsone gram of butter, and heats it in a pla-tinum dish of the size shown in the accom-panying figure, from four to six hours or evenmore—in short, until it ceases to lose weight.The loss of weight is the water, which shouldbe calculated and expressed in per-cen-tages. Jat. The dried butter is now to be heatedwith ether (the ether should be made to boilby floating the dish in hot water). Severalsuccessive portions should be taken, the wholepassed through a filter, the filter well washedwith ether, and the filtrate evaporated to dry-ness and weighed, Caseine and Ash. The residue from whichthe fat and water have been extracted is nowto be taken, carefully weighed, then burneddown to a low red heat; the residue remain-ing is the ash, the loss the caseine. The amount of ash, practically speaking, isthe salt, but if there be any doubt as to its

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Butter-analysiiig dish. composition, the chlorine may be estimated bya volumetric solution of nitrate of silver, andfurther examined. The following table shows the compositionof a few genuine and other butters, examinedaccording to the same, or at least to a simi-lar process to the one described:— Ash, Fat. principallySalt. Water. Caseine. Quality. Fresh Devonshire 82-7 1-1 16-2 16-2 Good. Waneiyn. butter. Normandy butter. 82-1 1-8 161 16-1 3» j> Jersey butter. 78-491 8-528 10-445 2-536 3> Angell and Normandy butter. 82-643 2-915 9-305 5-137 Hehnee. Butter from Vent- 86-280 6-600 3-831 3-289 » Found to be adul- » nor. terated with fo-reign fat. Butter from Lon- 87-50 1-559 23-981 6-880 Adulterated with » don. water. » » 47-119 2-689 42-358 7-834 Adulterated withwater, and con-tains an excessof curd. M 6. A Method of Detecting Meat Fats inButter. Mr Horsley, writing to the Chemi-cal News, September, 1874, says:—My start-ing point is, that fresh butter is permanentlysolu

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Image from page 38 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pha
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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed01cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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may be obtainedby dissolving the bicar-bonate in exactly 1000gr. of distilled watercon-tained in a * Scbustersalkalimeter, previouslyvery carefully weighed;in which case each grainof the test-solution willindicate rgth of a grain,or Ol^ of absolute aceticacid, whilst every 10 grains will be equal to 1grain, or 1^. The test-solution may also be prepared frombicarbonate of soda, or from the carbonates ofsoda or potash, care being taken that thequantity of the salt dissolved be in proportionto its molecular weight. 2. (Brande.) A small piece of white marble,clean and dry, is weighed, and then suspendedby a silk thread in a weighed sample (say 100or 1000 grs.) of the vinegar or acid underexamination; the action being promoted byoccasionally stirring the liquid with a glassrod, until the whole of the acid is saturated, asshown by no further action on the marblebeing observable on close inspection. Themarble is then withdrawn, washed in distilledwater, dried and weighed. The loss in weight

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24 ACETIMETRY which it has sustained will be nearly equal tothe acetic acid present, or strictly, as 50 (mar-ble) to 60 (absolute acetic acid). The onlyprecautions required are, to avoid striking thepiece of marble with the rod whilst stirringthe solution, or causing loss of siibstance in itafter its withdrawal; and to allow ample timefor the action of the acid on it. If the sampleconsists of strong acid, it should be dilutedwith twice or thrice its weight of water beforesuspending the marble in it. 3. (lire.) 100 grains of the sample underexamination is slightly reddened with tinctureof litmus, and ammonia of the sp. gr. 0992 isadded drop by drop (from an acetimeter hold-ing 1000 water-gr. measure, divided into 100divisions) until precise neutralisation iseffected, indicated by the blue colour of thelitmus being restored. The number of thedivisions of the acetimeter used, multiplied by60, and the first two right-hand figures of theproduct cut off as decimals, gives a numberwhich repr

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Losing Weight Without Dieting: Using Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to Optimize Organ Function and Lose Weight Easily

Losing Weight Without Dieting: Using Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to Optimize Organ Function and Lose Weight Easily

Losing Weight Without Dieting: Using Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to Optimize Organ Function and Lose Weight Easily

Your Guide to Losing Weight Using Traditional Chinese Medicine

If you struggle with losing weight using modern and conventional methods than Chinese and Oriental medicine may be what you are looking for!

Work with the forces of nature and not against them to achieve your goals.

Traditional Chinese and Oriental medicine brings a unique perspective to the understanding and processes involved in losing weight. For thousands of years these methods have been refined an

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Lose Weight Without Dieting: I lost 80 Pounds in 6 Months and I Was Not Even on a Diet

Lose Weight Without Dieting: I lost 80 Pounds in 6 Months and I Was Not Even on a Diet

I love dieting – said no one EVER! I’ve tried and failed virtually every traditional and new-fangled diet plan out there. But dieting, with thousands of rules and meal plans, just isn’t for me. And yet I wanted so desperately to lose weight! Enter the “anti-diet” diet, which allows you to get slim without adhering to a structured dieting plan.

It allows you to break free from the strict dieting mentality so you can focus on your goal, instead of wasting your time counting c

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