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Image from page 726 of “A practical treatise on diseases of the skin, for the use of students and practitioners” (1897)

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Image from page 726 of “A practical treatise on diseases of the skin, for the use of students and practitioners” (1897)
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Identifier: practicaltreati00hyd
Title: A practical treatise on diseases of the skin, for the use of students and practitioners
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors: Hyde, James Nevins, 1840-1910 Montgomery, Frank Hugh, 1862- joint author
Subjects: Skin
Publisher: Philadelphia, New York, Lea brothers & co.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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f Bazin).These infiltrations may disappear, leaving very peculiar circumscribedvitiliginous plaques where they existed; or the tumors described belowmay develop from them; or they may be in full development, furnish- NEW-GROWTHS. 693 ing no tumors, when the latter are growing with mushroom-like rapidityfrom other parts of the body, more particularly over the face; or,lastly, defined circumscribed areas, destitute of pigment, resemblingleucodermatous patches, may occur in the skin where there has beenno warty plaque. In a variable period of time the characteristic tumors of the diseaseappear upon the face, scalp, chest, and other portions of the body(Fig. 91). They are bean- to palm-sized; whitish; pinkish, or pale-reddish in hue ; well-rounded, and distinctly circumscribed. Oftenthey are like flat buttons, movable with the skin. They may thendisappear by absorption while others appear; they may degenerate byerosion leading to superficial ulceration; or they may melt down into Fig. 91.

Text Appearing After Image:
Mycosis fungoides (from an oil painting made at the bedside). deep losses of tissue by ulceration. Coincidently the lymphatic glandsmay enlarge, and this adenopathy, as in case of the tumors, may sub-side to be replaced later by similar involvement of the same or of otherglands. When the tumors have attained maturity and before involution hasbegun, their appearance, especially upon the face, is characteristic.They are smooth, moderately firm, sausage-like in shape, often tabu-lated, of a peculiar reddish hue, and produce when numerous, a lepra-like deformity, closing the eyes by their size or weight, producing theleonine brow and the elephantiasic ear. In the authors case illustratedin the appended cut,1 the body of the patient was extensively coveredwith tumors of all sizes, resembling those seen on the face. The general condition of the patient at first seems unaltered; later, 1 Edinburgh Medical Journal, 1883-1884, xxix. p. 592. 694 DISEASES OF THE SKIN. when the tumors ulcerate, e

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Boeing 367-80 (prototype 707, first jet airliner), and De Havilland Canada DHC-1A Chipmunk Pennzoil Special
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Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | De Havilland-Canada DHC-1A Chipmunk, Pennzoil Special:

De Havilland originally designed the Chipmunk after World War II as a primary trainer to replace the venerable Tiger Moth. Among the tens of thousands of pilots who trained in or flew the Chipmunk for pleasure was veteran aerobatic and movie pilot Art Scholl. He flew his Pennzoil Special at air shows throughout the 1970s and early ’80s, thrilling audiences with his skill and showmanship and proving that the design was a top-notch aerobatic aircraft.

Art Scholl purchased the DHC-1A in 1968. He modified it to a single-seat airplane with a shorter wingspan and larger vertical fin and rudder, and made other changes to improve its performance. Scholl was a three-time member of the U.S. Aerobatic Team, an air racer, and a movie and television stunt pilot. At air shows, he often flew with his dog Aileron on his shoulder or taxied with him standing on the wing.

Gift of the Estate of Arthur E. Scholl

Manufacturer:
De Havilland Canada Ltd.

Pilot:
Art Scholl

Date:
1946

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Wingspan: 9.4 m (31 ft)
Length: 7.9 m (26 ft)
Height: 2.1 m (7 ft 1 in)
Weight, empty: 717 kg (1,583 lb)
Weight, gross: 906 kg (2,000 lb)
Top speed: 265 km/h (165 mph)
Engine: Lycoming GO-435, 260 hp

Materials:
Overall: Aluminum Monocoque Physical Description:Single-engine monoplane. Lycoming GO-435, 260 hp engine.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing 367-80 Jet Transport:

On July 15, 1954, a graceful, swept-winged aircraft, bedecked in brown and yellow paint and powered by four revolutionary new engines first took to the sky above Seattle. Built by the Boeing Aircraft Company, the 367-80, better known as the Dash 80, would come to revolutionize commercial air transportation when its developed version entered service as the famous Boeing 707, America’s first jet airliner.

In the early 1950s, Boeing had begun to study the possibility of creating a jet-powered military transport and tanker to complement the new generation of Boeing jet bombers entering service with the U.S. Air Force. When the Air Force showed no interest, Boeing invested million of its own capital to build a prototype jet transport in a daring gamble that the airlines and the Air Force would buy it once the aircraft had flown and proven itself. As Boeing had done with the B-17, it risked the company on one roll of the dice and won.

Boeing engineers had initially based the jet transport on studies of improved designs of the Model 367, better known to the public as the C-97 piston-engined transport and aerial tanker. By the time Boeing progressed to the 80th iteration, the design bore no resemblance to the C-97 but, for security reasons, Boeing decided to let the jet project be known as the 367-80.

Work proceeded quickly after the formal start of the project on May 20, 1952. The 367-80 mated a large cabin based on the dimensions of the C-97 with the 35-degree swept-wing design based on the wings of the B-47 and B-52 but considerably stiffer and incorporating a pronounced dihedral. The wings were mounted low on the fuselage and incorporated high-speed and low-speed ailerons as well as a sophisticated flap and spoiler system. Four Pratt & Whitney JT3 turbojet engines, each producing 10,000 pounds of thrust, were mounted on struts beneath the wings.

Upon the Dash 80’s first flight on July 15, 1954, (the 34th anniversary of the founding of the Boeing Company) Boeing clearly had a winner. Flying 100 miles per hour faster than the de Havilland Comet and significantly larger, the new Boeing had a maximum range of more than 3,500 miles. As hoped, the Air Force bought 29 examples of the design as a tanker/transport after they convinced Boeing to widen the design by 12 inches. Satisfied, the Air Force designated it the KC-135A. A total of 732 KC-135s were built.

Quickly Boeing turned its attention to selling the airline industry on this new jet transport. Clearly the industry was impressed with the capabilities of the prototype 707 but never more so than at the Gold Cup hydroplane races held on Lake Washington in Seattle, in August 1955. During the festivities surrounding this event, Boeing had gathered many airline representatives to enjoy the competition and witness a fly past of the new Dash 80. To the audience’s intense delight and Boeing’s profound shock, test pilot Alvin "Tex" Johnston barrel-rolled the Dash 80 over the lake in full view of thousands of astonished spectators. Johnston vividly displayed the superior strength and performance of this new jet, readily convincing the airline industry to buy this new airliner.

In searching for a market, Boeing found a ready customer in Pan American Airway’s president Juan Trippe. Trippe had been spending much of his time searching for a suitable jet airliner to enable his pioneering company to maintain its leadership in international air travel. Working with Boeing, Trippe overcame Boeing’s resistance to widening the Dash-80 design, now known as the 707, to seat six passengers in each seat row rather than five. Trippe did so by placing an order with Boeing for 20 707s but also ordering 25 of Douglas’s competing DC-8, which had yet to fly but could accommodate six-abreast seating. At Pan Am’s insistence, the 707 was made four inches wider than the Dash 80 so that it could carry 160 passengers six-abreast. The wider fuselage developed for the 707 became the standard design for all of Boeing’s subsequent narrow-body airliners.

Although the British de Havilland D.H. 106 Comet and the Soviet Tupolev Tu-104 entered service earlier, the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 were bigger, faster, had greater range, and were more profitable to fly. In October 1958 Pan American ushered the jet age into the United States when it opened international service with the Boeing 707 in October 1958. National Airlines inaugurated domestic jet service two months later using a 707-120 borrowed from Pan Am. American Airlines flew the first domestic 707 jet service with its own aircraft in January 1959. American set a new speed mark when it opened the first regularly-scheduled transcontinental jet service in 1959. Subsequent nonstop flights between New York and San Francisco took only 5 hours – 3 hours less than by the piston-engine DC-7. The one-way fare, including a surcharge for jet service, was 5.50, or 1 round trip. The flight was almost 40 percent faster and almost 25 percent cheaper than flying by piston-engine airliners. The consequent surge of traffic demand was substantial.

The 707 was originally designed for transcontinental or one-stop transatlantic range. But modified with extra fuel tanks and more efficient turbofan engines, the 707-300 Intercontinental series aircraft could fly nonstop across the Atlantic with full payload under any conditions. Boeing built 855 707s, of which 725 were bought by airlines worldwide.

Having launched the Boeing Company into the commercial jet age, the Dash 80 soldiered on as a highly successful experimental aircraft. Until its retirement in 1972, the Dash 80 tested numerous advanced systems, many of which were incorporated into later generations of jet transports. At one point, the Dash 80 carried three different engine types in its four nacelles. Serving as a test bed for the new 727, the Dash 80 was briefly equipped with a fifth engine mounted on the rear fuselage. Engineers also modified the wing in planform and contour to study the effects of different airfoil shapes. Numerous flap configurations were also fitted including a highly sophisticated system of "blown" flaps which redirected engine exhaust over the flaps to increase lift at low speeds. Fin height and horizontal stabilizer width was later increased and at one point, a special multiple wheel low pressure landing gear was fitted to test the feasibility of operating future heavy military transports from unprepared landing fields.

After a long and distinguished career, the Boeing 367-80 was finally retired and donated to the Smithsonian in 1972. At present, the aircraft is installated at the National Air and Space Museum’s new facility at Washington Dulles International Airport.

Gift of the Boeing Company

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.

Date:
1954

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Height 19′ 2": Length 73′ 10": Wing Span 129′ 8": Weight 33,279 lbs.

Physical Description:
Prototype Boeing 707; yellow and brown.

carlo scarpa, architect: fondazione querini stampalia, venice 1961-1963. entrance bridge.
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Image by seier+seier
fondazione querini stampalia, restoration of the palazzo ground floor, venice 1961-1963.
architect: carlo scarpa, 1906-1978.

ruskin poetically named the ground floor of venetian palazzi the sea story. it is exceptional in architectural history for having its formal entrance towards the water for arrival by boat, but has in general suffered from flooding, the loss of venetian culture and inevitable changes in traffic. in the fondazione querini stampalia, a renaissance palazzo left by will to the city as a museum and public library, the sea story was used mostly for storage, and its entrance faced a narrow alley, barely acknowledging its former greatness or its current civic importance.

when one of scarpa’s students became director of the fondazione, he called upon his old professor to clear things up. what scarpa did has been uniformly lauded as one of the finest examples of modern restoration, yet by 2013 the very elements we celebrate could as easily be described as failures.

the floodings and the lack of boats were answered by scarpa by inviting water itself into the building. at high tide, the sea enters through the gate, and we, the visitors, traverse the building on raised, concrete walkways. the relationship of venice to the water, this strangest of ecosystems and cultures, was never captured more intensely than here.

with the main entrance reserved for the sea and the old door to the alley out of the question, scarpa made the incredible decision to enter the building through a window – like a thief. as is true for criminals breaking in, when you enter without using the door, you leave the question of what is going to happen inside wide open.

scarpa used this freedom to be unapologetically modern in spite of and in contrast to the historical context which created the layered clarity, the building is now famous for. but it could as well be argued that it fits the fondazione itself which is open late and at odd hours, and works as an alternative to more conventional institutions.

like the partisan monument we looked at earlier, in which the onlookers are placed on pedestals, passively looking down on the statue of a murdered and tortured woman, the idea of entering through a window should be seen as another of scarpa’s great reversals – a reversal of function and expectation, closer perhaps to the uncertainties of modern literature than to architecture. I have at least one more of these to show you.

most importantly, scarpa had demonstrated, right in the heart of the city, that ruskin was wrong when he concluded that restoration invariably killed the building it was aiming to rescue. here was a new path, of its own time but with an attitude to history and place that was both knowing, respectful to a degree and endlessly playful. ‘the rate at which venice is going is about that of a lump of sugar in hot tea’, the very english ruskin once wrote. well, not if scarpa could help it.

my photo shows the light-weight bridge he leant against the window of entry. legend has it that the aging le corbusier, sailing under it, shouted who is this great artist?

so far, so triumphant. now, where was the failure?

and it is a small complaint, I know, that a student handing his old professor a commission is illegal by current EU law if there is as much as a cent of public money involved. regardless of any claims to genius, scarpa would have had to win his jobs in some form of competition or tender had he been alive today. we would never even have heard his name, as anyone who has studied his method or indeed his competition entries will testify.

it also isn’t hard to understand why scarpa’s idea of letting salt water into your client’s house – however controlled – never became the model for restoring the many troubled sea stories of venice. it was a happy one-off and one which we will never see repeated. that he was even able to propose it may help us understand why he lost so many jobs. did you know scarpa worked on the ca’ d’oro, the finest of all gothic palaces in venice, and was kicked out?

finally, I urge you to look at the new, third stage of the querini stampalia restoration, recently completed by mario botta. his spaces are entirely divorced from their wet surroundings, and their perfectly controlled climate could as well have us in dubai as in venice. I hurried through them with a feeling of mild claustrophobia, and wondered at how far we have come since scarpa’s intimate treatise on context, culture, climate and history.

botta’s work includes a new way in, leaving the bridge to the window as a mere appendage, an empty gesture unless you know the background. in painful irony, you enter through a gift shop, predictably loaded with scarpa books for the fans.

the scarpa set.

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Image from page 9 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock” (1901)

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Image from page 9 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock” (1901)
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Identifier: railwaylocomotiv15newy
Title: Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Authors:
Subjects: Railroads Locomotives
Publisher: New York : A. Sinclair Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:
that the engine wihthe least pound is least liable to knocksomething off, lose a rod, or pound hot, orbe subject to any of the numerous ills that fu! source of expense to the companyemploying him. This is one thing the young runnershould be particular to guard against. Inmaking his reports he should make surethat he is right above all things. No doubtanyone is liable to a mistake at times, andof course the more seldom his mistakesoccur the more readily are they overlooked; but if his mistakes are the rueinstead of the exception they will soonbegin to reflect back on him personally,and he will be in hot water all the time. It does not take a roundhouse man longto size up the engineer who is continuallymaking the wrong report. They get sothey pay no attention whatever to anythinghe says, quit trying to do his work, butwait until he lays off and another mantakes his engine out in whom they haveconfidence enough to believe he knowswhat he is talking about when reportingwork on an engine.

Text Appearing After Image:
B.LDWaN S METHOD OF WEIGHING LOCOMOTIVES. NO GUESSING HOW MUCH WEIGHT IS ON EACH PAIR OF WHEELS, department has its leaks. The stoppageof these leaks is sometimes all that is neces-sary to put a road on a paying basis. Aprosperous railroad can afford better pay,better facilities, better power, and bettertrack than the one whose revenues barelymeet the expenses. No argument is neces-sary to convince any engineer or firemanthat he can make more money and makeit easier on a first-class engine runningover good track than he can on a scrapheap running over two streaks of rust.The money all can save to the companywill go far toward obtaining this betterpower, track, etc, and in that way it isplain that all will be benefited thereby. The little leaks incidental to the opera-tion of a railroad—just because they arelittle and not so forcibly brought to theattention of the higher officials—are some-times passed by without receiving the the traveling scrap heap is liable to inmaking a close

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The beastmen killing the zombies
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A battle of magic: 1000 points of Vampire Counts in the form of two necromantic brothers and their horde’s of zombie followers vs. 1000 points of Tzeentch worshipping beasts of chaos.

Six turns (plus one), beasts of chaos deploy first and go first.

jon-a-ross.livejournal.com/948428.html For the following battle report with pictures:

This battle started out as an experiment to see if a horde of zombies could be a threat, an actually working army. In theory they are cheap enough that you can field a silly number of them, overwhelming mortal armies and dragging them down. To test this out I build a 1000 point vampire counts force using 2 necromancers and 160 zombies. I have 180 zombie models, so with 20 to spare I was all set to roll.

To face the zombies I thought I would see how my beasts of Chaos force works. I have never fielded beasts of Chaos before (and vampire counts only in small warbands battles) so this was going to be an interesting match.

The beasts of chaos got two 8 gor 12 ungor herds, one of which was sent to ambush. Leading the force was a wargor of Tzeentch in Chaos armour and shield, inside a 20 beast unit of Bestigor’s of Tzeentch (Tzaangors). Thinking about it the Tzaangors might have had a magical standard, but if they did I forgot to use it during the game. Rounding out the beasts of Chaos force was a mutated chaos giant, for punch. It turns out to have been an excellent call.

The vampire counts were all zombies as I’ve stated. So the 4 40 corpse zombie hordes with standard and musician would be the bulk. But there was one minor necromancer with the book that has the dancing zombie’s bound spell and the heal undead spell. And the final necromancer general with all three necromantic spells, the nightshroud armour and the scepter of raising the dead mounted on a corpse cart to lead them. I remembered a little late into the game that the general could share his leadership with the troops, something that if I had recalled would’ve put the general even closer to the action and trying to keep all the zombies close enough to get both that bonus and the ability to march.

The battlefield was built to be the site of some fallen settlement, already reclaimed by nature. A small grove of trees, some rocks marking the foundations of buildings and a evil monolith in the center. Looking at the field during the play I found the zombie side wishing their was less terrain on the field. With such large units they were having trouble getting more then one unit into combat at a time, and to win the zombies really needed to double team as much as possible.

In general the beasts of chaos failed their leadership to charge tests only a couple of times, but those moments when they couldn’t get up the nerve to strike bought the zombies time to re-enforce their numbers. Magic was untrustworthy in the game, as I rolled three miscasts using level one and two wizards. The Tzeentch wargor had two miscasts and the zombie general one. I also recall at least two unstoppable force castings. Otherwise both sides had enough dispel dice to counter all but one of the spells from the other. The necromancers had two bound spells and four power dice, but usually I would cast one 2 dice spell off the general and then one single die spell off each necromancer (usually the heal undead spell) followed by the bound spells.

The Tzeentch wargor had rolled up the flaming shield spell as well as a spell that could cause a unit to strike itself, only if that unit isn’t immune to psychology. As the undead are that spell was traded in for the default magic missile zap. In the game only two zaps from the magic missile were successful, but the spell did cast three times successfully. The flaming shield never was cast, it was either dispelled or miscast or even not cast at all (throwing it last after the magic missile using two dice). Magic for the beastmen was not a tipping point.

Turn 1 sees the beasts of chaos rush forward. I was thinking about having the Tzaangors meet up with the beastmen herd and catch the zombies in a pincher movement, but I didn’t want to have my beastmen caught from behind either. I waited to see how fast the zombies would approach. The chaos giant was heading off to deal with the flanking zombies. Some zombies die from magic, but their loss is barely noticed.

The zombies shuffle forward, in such large numbers as to be a threat. The corpse cart and general keep between the large zombie hordes and even summon up some more zombies to join in. The zombies on the flank alone move forward a bit, while the zombies with the necromancer escort are magically encouraged forward.

Turn 2 has the Tzaangors fail their leadership test to charge the fear causing zombies, the general summons the ambushing beastmen herd and the giant charges the zombies on the flank. The beastmen arrive right behind the corpse cart as planned and will force it into a defensive position. The magic phase sees the first miscast from the Tzeentch Wargor and ends. The giant starts jumping up and down on the zombies, something he will do for a while yet.

The zombies move forward on their second turn, pushing forward as their battle plan has already been drawn. The necromancer general summons up and re-enforces a zombie horde to stand between himself and the approaching beastmen. The zombies fighting the giant are not as lucky and find themselves reduced to only four.

Turn 3 sees the wargor of Tzeentch get his men to agree to charge the zombies. The giant will jump on the last of the zombies, and the beastmen herd on the other side will successfully charge the zombies over there. The ambushing beastmen herd will fail to find the courage to charge the zombies summoned up just to deal with them. So far over 40 zombies will have been killed but they do seem to keep on coming.

The zombies charge the beastmen herd that was ambushing them. But even as the beastmen fail their leadership they are able to do enough to win combat against the zombies, who then fail their leadership roll badly (in part because the general was too far away) and lose a number of their troops. The other zombie conflicts continue to push forward, but non zombie losses are light. The necromancer who as babysitting the zombies on the flank runs and in his haste losses the bookmark for his spellbook, casting the dancing one last time on himself to get away.

Turn 4 starts with the giant rushing after the funny little man who dropped stuff. The wargor miscasts for a second time, this time blowing up three of his men, three zombies and taking a wound for his trouble. The beastmen in combat with the zombies keep cutting them down, slashing and cutting, cutting and slashing.

The necromancer doesn’t have much like this round either, with a miscast of his own damaging both himself and the corpse cart he’s on. The zombies are able to charge the beastmen on the flank, hoping to just break them but they past their leadership. Then the flanking charge is hoped to be enough. It isn’t, the beastmen are able to push to a tie on this round of battle. Worse yet, both the zombies slowing down the ambushing beastmen herd as well as the zombies fighting the Tzaangors are both destroyed.

Turn 5 sees three out of the four beastmen units free of attackers and able to push forward to break into the zombie command structure. Only their courage fails them. Both the beastmen herd and the Tzaangors fail their leadership tests to charge fear causing units, leaving the zombie commanders alive and well. One necromancer takes a magic missile but he keeps going with his two wounds. The beastmen herd under the weight of two zombie forces breaks, taking 38 hits for running away from so many zombies.

The zombies follow up on this success by sending the smaller zombie group after the fleeing beastmen, who run further. The rest of the zombies then regroup and move to support the general, turning around and heading back into the center of the battlefield.

Turn six was a bit of a disappointment for both sides. Nothing on the beastmen side was in charge range or passed their leadership tests to charge. The fleeing beastmen kept fleeing. The zombies were able to get seven or so of the mindless buggers to charge the giant but no wounds and all wiped out in a single combat phase.

At the end of the formal game the match was clearly for the beasts of chaos. They had one unit fleeing but all three of the others were mostly undamaged. But the zombies saw a chance that one more turn could change that. It would have to be a perfect turn, but it was possible for a zombie victory.

Turn seven therefore saw the beastmen rally on the flank, as well as the giant and the other beastman herd charge. The giant just runs up to the necromancer and yells at him, ending that battle but causing no wounds to either side. The beastmen that charged the zombies failed to take into account the zombies striking first and the zombies are amazingly able to win the combat. The beastmen break and lose a number of their men to the zombies as they pull down the fleeing troops.

But the zombies do not fair much better. One group of zombies has finally worked it’s way around the monolith and stands ready to surprise the Tzaangors. If the Tzaangors break from combat, as they have already passed the leadership test to be charged by the zombies, they will be lost upon contact with the zombies. The corpse cart takes a direct hit from the giant’s club and even it’s regeneration isn’t enough to put it together. But the necromancer riding it was unharmed, but unable to damage the giant either. The zombies on the flank are lost in their reckless charge against the beastmen (I was hoping for a failed leadership test or similar to give the zombies a chance). And in the end, the zombies against the tzaangors are not enough to break them. It wasn’t even close.

The battle goes to the beasts of chaos.

Image from page 73 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock” (1901)

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Image from page 73 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock” (1901)
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Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: railwaylocomotiv23newy
Title: Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Authors:
Subjects: Railroads Locomotives
Publisher: New York : A. Sinclair Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:
length oftubes, 2 ft. 9 ins.; length of firebo.x, 16ins.; width of firebox at top, 135^ ins.;width of firebox at bottom, 20 ins.;heating surface of tubes, 23 sq. ft.; heat-ing surface of firebox, 8.88 s(|. ft.; totalheating surface, 31.88 sq. ft. The watertank is placed at the rear, and holds 60gallons. Coke fuel, capacity 100 lbsSix of this class of motor were recentlyexported to Guayaquil. The other example is of a largerstreet railway motor, built for theUvalde Street Railway Company ofTexas. The gauge of the track isstandard. The cylinders are 8 x 14ins.; diameter of driving wheels, 30 ins.;weight of running order, 28,500 lbs.;weight on drivers, 20,000 lbs.; boilerpressure, 165 lbs.; tractive force, 4,174lbs.; straight tyjie liniler, diameter ^2 firebox at top and bottom, 26^ ins.;heating surface of lubes, 143.2 sq. ft.;heating surface of firebox. 32.5 sq. ft.; .-ountries is gaining favor among .Xmeri-■ans, may be inferred from the numberf technical and social organizations that

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rili.^M MOTOR FOR STRI£KT SERVICE, WITH III,OT .NL) HEADL.VMl.li. K. PORTER CO. total heating surface, 175.5 sq. ft.: watercapacity, 300 gallons; coal capacity, 300lbs. Railway or Railroad? The structure consisting of rails onwhich cars are run is to most Americansa railroad, but the practice nf calling it 1 1 ETm 1 EMPUESAdeCumOS URBANOS 1 >> _ _: z:±k< 1 L §^§ n J- have railway in their names. For manyyears railway publications have beenmuch more common than those bearingthe railroad device, and now we noticthat our ancient friend the Railroad Ageija::cttc has changed railroad for railway.The preference for railroad or railwayis a matter of taste, but our own biasfavors railway. It is the shortest word,the most enphonious, the most easily ar-ticulated and at the same tmie quite asC-xpressive as its rival. We could, how-ever, content ourselves with either ifsome power would banish one of thenames from use so that uniformity mightpreail. We lose too much time in ourwrit

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The last three bloodletters fall under the zombie charge
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Battle report here jon-a-ross.livejournal.com/949385.html

Battle Report: 1000 points Khorne Daemons vs. 1000 points Zombies (Vampire Counts)
Six turns (plus one) Zombies move first.

The zombie hordes had seen one battle before, that against the beasts of Chaos army. In that struggle the zombies were counted as the losers, with much of their army ripped to pieces. But it had moments where a zombie victory seemed possible. So the zombies are pulled out again to battle against 1000 points of Khorne daemons. 4 groups of 40 zombies, each with a standard and a musician are lead by one necromancer with all the spells on his corpse cart and another necromancer on foot with the book of dancing dead.

The khorne forces are lead by one Herald of Khorne with flaming attacks and body armour. The mighty herald joins a unit of 11 bloodletters with full command and will lead two more units of 10 bloodletters (full command) and two groups of flesh hounds into battle (11 total). The bloodletters are mostly untried in Fantasy, having seen some action in 40K. In 40K they are excellent marine killers but not so good against guardsmen. We shall see how they do against the fantasy undead.

Unlike the last time the zombies fought with seven pieces of terrain crowding the battlefield, we go with a lightly dotted landscape. One hill crested with heads from a lost civilization. The monolith (one of many that dot my warhammer world) and a small hill with more rocks on it are all that can be seen.

With the zombie first move the plan is straight forward. The necromancer will use the book to move one group of zombies in the south forward in an effort to flank the line of daemons when they hit the zombies in the middle of the table. A group of zombies is raised from the dead and bolstered with more zombies to intercept the approaching flesh hounds in the north. The magic phase goes almost entirely the way the undead wish, with the zombie general getting both his spells cast, as well as the bound spells all working. Only the necromancer on foot fails his spell, rolling a single die looking for 4.

The Daemons of Khorne move forward, not recklessly but carefully. Both groups of flesh hounds are moved to flank, one in the north and one in the south. The bloodletters themselves move forward slowly. One unit of ten on each side of their commander and his unit of 11. (I deployed them in file of 4 because I thought that was legal. As I understand now looking over the rules that 4 is 6th edition thinking and it has to be 5 for 7th edition. I’ll double check later, but carried on the battle regardless.)

Zombie turn two was more slowing shifting forward with failed charges from the lead zombies. More dead summoned, with the raise dead spell being stopped by the dice. It also allowed the daemons to stop the corpse cart from granting strikes first to the zombies around it. That power will promise to be painful.

Daemon turn 2 is marked by charging. Four units charge into the zombies and deal heavy damage. Over 20 zombies fall either through injury or their magic failing to hold them together. The herald and his unit score only 2 kills, even after rerolling to hit because of their hatred. This results in the herald’s unit losing combat and making a leadership test itself.

Zombie turn 3 sees another group of zombies launch a charge against the bloodletter line. This time the zombies are able to flank and will add their weight to pushing the bloodletters down. The dispel dice come up snake eyes, giving the zombies total control over the rest of the magic phase. More undead are raised into existence to flank charge next turn, while a number of the existing units are increased in size. The bloodletters which are being flanked are having terrible luck rolling dice, scoring four ones to hit and one one to wound. In that battle the daemons will end up losing combat and having three lost to warp instability.

Daemon turn 3 has the daemons with their only unengaged unit, the flesh hounds in the south, attempt to charge the zombies and come up short. The rest of the daemons have no choice but to attempt to slay the unliving foes that now threaten to pull them down. Much to the horror of the daemons, they actually use more of their number this turn then they slay zombies. The corpse cart has given the zombies unnatural speed. It accounted for very little last phase but this time the daemons feel their low toughness score. The one group of daemons fighting off 60 zombies, 11 at a time, end up losing combat so badly that between the wounds from the zombies and daemonic instability they are wiped out. Now it becomes 35 daemons against 150 zombies or so.

Zombie turn 4 sees the zombies push in towards the bloodletters. Both the remaining bloodletter groups are now fighting on two sides, with the herald of khorne and his bloodletters being attacked by over 60 zombies. The magic phase goes to the undead as the dispel dice are held to cancel the strike first powers of the corpse cart. Thus another group of zombies can be summoned and added to. This group shall be used to flank the flesh hounds when they charge into the zombie mess.

The close combat phase also goes badly for the bloodletters. Another bad roll off the bloodletters results in only a single zombie death and then a loss of combat for the daemons. Five daemons die in the center and five zombies, not an exchange rate the daemons can afford. The only upside is that the flesh hounds have an excellent round against the zombies they were fighting in the north, destroying the group completely after the leadership test.

Daemon turn 4 has the few remaining bloodletters worried. They are both fighting battles on two sides, against foes that are just strong enough to wound them one third of the time, and who hit them one third of the time. Sure one third of the time they save the wound, but the numbers against them are adding up.

Lucky, the flesh hounds of khorne are able to both smash into the zombie horde like bookends. It took the group in the south four turns to finally get into combat, but thankfully it is going to be worth the wait. The flesh hounds hit the zombies and kill six on the first impact. The zombie horde makes the snake eyes leadership test and loses no more members.

In the north the flesh hounds also strike into the zombies, and the zombies fail their leadership with an eleven. The general will be able to give his leadership to them, but still a large number of zombies fall as the magic that bounds them together fails against the flesh hounds.

Zombie turn five has the zombies looking not as impressive as before. The necromancer on foot is trying to stay out of the way of the khorne daemons should they win, while the general on the corpse cart is trying to get his cart into a position to maximize the strike first power. The flesh hounds in the south get charged by zombies, trying to break them.

The magic phase doesn’t work as well for the zombies, as they are attempting to boost their zombie’s attacks and numbers. Another group of zombies is summoned to rear charge the flesh hounds next turn if possible. The book of dancing is able to allow a group of six zombies to attack now out of turn, an attack that kills two daemons. However, that is the only good thing that happens for the zombies this phase, as the last remains of the group that the flesh hounds charged fall. Another daemon falls in the other combats, but they manage to take twelve zombies with them.

Daemon turn five is the final nail in the coffin of the zombies. The flesh hounds, having ripped through two groups of zombies, are free to charge the necromancer general on the corpse cart. The ranks are redressed to bring the maximum bloodletters against the zombies in the north, and the battle will come to a head here.

The flesh hounds are able to rip the corpse cart to pieces, even with its regeneration. The necromancer lands on his feet against the flesh hounds, worried. The other zombies also lose their various combats. Eighteen daemons remain out of the forty three that launched the battle. There are still over 100 zombies in play but it doesn’t look good for them.

Zombie turn six has the zombies in a tough place. Their general is in single combat against six flesh hounds of khorne. Their zombie hordes are two large blocks and then four small blocks being threatened. A group of zombies that were summoned last turn to attack the flesh hounds get their chance, rushing in to attempt to save the general. Using all their magic the zombies try to get strike first and extra attacks for the zombies against those flesh hounds.

It isn’t enough, as the flesh hounds are able to rip the necromancer general into pieces. However, all that magic being shot around allows the zombies to catch and rip the daemon herald of khorne and his bloodletter escort into pieces. The herald himself falls to daemonic instability as two of his escort fell to zombie claws. So at the end of the turn we have both generals dead and the combat coming to an end. The zombies hold themselves together well with the general dead, only a handful die.

Daemon turn six has the daemons pushing forward their advantage and cutting down the necromancer on foot with their last bloodletters. The flesh hounds keep chewing into their zombie targets. One group of zombies will be lost, leaving fourteen daemons of khorne against 56 zombies. The ratio of zombie to daemon is finally swinging in favour of the daemons.

Thus ends the official six turns of the game, with the points saying that the daemons of khorne have won. 725 or so points for the zombies and 950 or so points for the daemons of khorne. A close match in the end, and close enough that it calls for one more turn.

Turn seven for the zombies sees some bad leadership rolls with their general dead. One group of zombies fighting the flesh hounds in the north falls apart completely, while the other two groups, even with their losses, are able to charge the last bloodletters. The zombies are then able to pull those last bloodletters to pieces, without giving the bloodletters a chance to strike back.

Daemon turn seven has the flesh hounds charge one group of zombies, smashing through it and following up against to the final group of zombies.

And as the game was down to three units, I kept going. Zombie turn eight has a handful of zombies fall without the magic of their general holding them together, but the flesh hounds fail to wound a zombie on their own. In revenge the zombies are able to pull down one flesh hound, after instability rolls.

The second group of flesh hounds joins into the battle against the zombies and it will end quickly with the zombies putting up some brief struggle.

Image from page 352 of “Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science” (1916)

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Image from page 352 of “Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science” (1916)
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Identifier: practicalphysiol1916hawk
Title: Practical physiological chemistry; a book designed for use in courses in practical physiological chemistry in schools of medicine and of science
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors: Hawk, Philip B. (Philip Bovier), b. 1874
Subjects: Biochemistry
Publisher: Philadelphia, P. Blakiston’s son & co
Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries
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apo-rated. The drying is continued in a hot-airoven at a temperature below loo^C. and finallycompleted in a desiccator to constant weight. CroUs modification consists of subsequentrepeated extraction of the end-product ofevaporation with absolute ether. The com-bined extracts are filtered and the small filter paper is washed repeatedly with absolute ether. The combined extracts andwashings are evaporated and dried as before and then weighed. The piece of apparatus shown in Fig. 107, above was also devised by Crollto do away with the use of the pipette. ^ On closing the top with a finger andblowing into the mouthpiece, the upper stratum is forced out into the dish. Thebottle is washed by simply pouring the ether into the tube. This lessens thepossibility of accidental loss. ^ Original paper by Dr. .Arthur V. Meigs in Philadelphia Medical Times, July i, 1882.^ Croll: Biochem. Bull., 2, 509. 1913. If desired a cork with two tubes may be substituted for this somewhat complicatedapparatus.

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Fig. 107.—Crolls Fatajppar.tus. 326 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY The accuracy of the method compared with that of the Soxhlet method,using the paper-coil modification and extracting until fresh portions of absoluteether gave no further trace of extractive material, is shown by the average difference on twelve samples of human milkbeing only 0.017 per cent less than by theSoxhlet and on seven samples cows milk beingonly 0.019 per cent less. The extreme differ-ences in case of the hrnnan milk were—0.004per cent and—0.044 per cent and in case ofthe cows milk—0.006 per cent and—0.068 percent. (f) Adams Paper-coil Method.—Introduceabout 5 c.c. of milk into a small beaker, quicklyascertain the weight to centigrams, stand a fat-free coU^ in the beaker and incline the vesseland rotate the coil in order to hasten the absorp-tion of the milk. Immediately upon the com-plete absorption of the milk remove the coU andagain quicklj^ ascertain the weight of the beaker.The difference in the we

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www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/science/earth/26charmin.html?_…

By LESLIE KAUFMAN
Published: February 25, 2009

Americans like their toilet tissue soft: exotic confections that are silken, thick and hot-air-fluffed.

The national obsession with soft paper has driven the growth of brands like Cottonelle Ultra, Quilted Northern Ultra and Charmin Ultra — which in 2008 alone increased its sales by 40 percent in some markets, according to Information Resources, Inc., a marketing research firm.

But fluffiness comes at a price: millions of trees harvested in North America and in Latin American countries, including some percentage of trees from rare old-growth forests in Canada. Although toilet tissue can be made at similar cost from recycled material, it is the fiber taken from standing trees that help give it that plush feel, and most large manufacturers rely on them.

The country’s soft-tissue habit — call it the Charmin effect — has not escaped the notice of environmentalists, who are increasingly making toilet tissue manufacturers the targets of campaigns. Greenpeace on Monday for the first time issued a national guide for American consumers that rates toilet tissue brands on their environmental soundness. With the recession pushing the price for recycled paper down and Americans showing more willingness to repurpose everything from clothing to tires, environmental groups want more people to switch to recycled toilet tissue.

“No forest of any kind should be used to make toilet paper,” said Dr. Allen Hershkowitz, a senior scientist and waste expert with the Natural Resource Defense Council.

In the United States, which is the largest market worldwide for toilet paper, tissue from 100 percent recycled fibers makes up less than 2 percent of sales for at-home use among conventional and premium brands. Most manufacturers use a combination of trees to make their products. According to RISI, an independent market analysis firm in Bedford, Mass., the pulp from one eucalyptus tree, a commonly used tree, produces as many as 1,000 rolls of toilet tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per capita a year.

Other countries are far less picky about toilet tissue. In many European nations, a rough sheet of paper is deemed sufficient. Other countries are also more willing to use toilet tissue made in part or exclusively from recycled paper.

In Europe and Latin America, products with recycled content make up about on average 20 percent of the at-home market, according to experts at the Kimberly Clark Corporation.

Environmentalists are focusing on tissue products for reasons besides the loss of trees. Turning a tree to paper requires more water than turning paper back into fiber, and many brands that use tree pulp use polluting chlorine-based bleach for greater whiteness. In addition, tissue made from recycled paper produces less waste tonnage — almost equaling its weight — that would otherwise go to a landfill.

Still, trees and tree quality remain a contentious issue. Although brands differ, 25 percent to 50 percent of the pulp used to make toilet paper in this country comes from tree farms in South America and the United States. The rest, environmental groups say, comes mostly from old, second-growth forests that serve as important absorbers of carbon dioxide, the main heat-trapping gas linked to global warming. In addition, some of the pulp comes from the last virgin North American forests, which are an irreplaceable habitat for a variety of endangered species, environmental groups say.

Greenpeace, the international conservation organization, contends that Kimberly Clark, the maker of two popular brands, Cottonelle and Scott, has gotten as much as 22 percent of its pulp from producers who cut trees in Canadian boreal forests where some trees are 200 years old.

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Image from page 228 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph

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Image from page 228 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph
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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed02cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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se-corn of this country,but in the northern parts of the country it isextensively used as food for man. The huskedgrain constitutes GEOATS, and its meal oat-meal. The latter does not form a dough withwater, as wheaten meal or flour does. Oats consist of frGm24s to28gof husk, and74^ to 78g of grain. According to M. Payen,they contain of starch,6059^; azotised matter,1439£; saccharine and gummy matter, 925g ;fatty matter, 5*50{?; cellulose, 7602; silica andsaline matter, 325-g. The husks contain be-tween 6 and 7g of saline matter. (Prof.Norton.) The ash amounts to 218^, andconsists of potassa and soda, 2618g; lime,595g; magnesia, 995^ j oxide of iron, 40^;phosphoric acid, 4384^; sulphuric acid, 1045^;chlorine, -26^; silica, 2-67§; alumina, •QQ%.(Johnston.) The yield of oats is from 20 bushels peracre in poor soils, up to 60, 70, and even 80bushels per acre in rich soils. The weight perbushel varies from 35 to 45 lbs., and the pro-duct in meal is about one half the weight ofthe oats.

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Wliite oat-Loiig. sect., Snd and Srd coats not separable, a. Compound grains x 100; 5. Que do. x 500. A large proportion of the oats given tohorses passes off undigested. It has hencebeen proposed to prevent this loss, by eithercoarsely bruising them in a mill, or by pour-ing boiling water over them, and allowing them to macerate till cold, when they are tobe given to the horses without straining ofi.the water. It is stated on good authoritythat oats thus treated will not only fattenquicker, but go twice as far as without pre- U18 OATMEAL—OBSTRUCTION OP LOCAL AUTHORITY paration. Oat bruisers are now manufacturedby most agricultural iuipletnent makers. Under tlie microscope the oat is seen to con-sist of two or three envelopes ; the outer beingcomposed of lougitudinul cells j the second ob-liquely transverse and not very clearly seen ;in this, the cells are wanting in part or passinto the cells of the third coat; the third en-velope consists of a layer, usually single, ofcells, like

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Image from page 391 of “Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Ph
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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed01cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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fat which hasbeen previously melted to the lowest possibletemperature, and then immediately allowed tocongeal. 5. Professor Wanklyn carefully weighsone gram of butter, and heats it in a pla-tinum dish of the size shown in the accom-panying figure, from four to six hours or evenmore—in short, until it ceases to lose weight.The loss of weight is the water, which shouldbe calculated and expressed in per-cen-tages. Jat. The dried butter is now to be heatedwith ether (the ether should be made to boilby floating the dish in hot water). Severalsuccessive portions should be taken, the wholepassed through a filter, the filter well washedwith ether, and the filtrate evaporated to dry-ness and weighed, Caseine and Ash. The residue from whichthe fat and water have been extracted is nowto be taken, carefully weighed, then burneddown to a low red heat; the residue remain-ing is the ash, the loss the caseine. The amount of ash, practically speaking, isthe salt, but if there be any doubt as to its

Text Appearing After Image:
Butter-analysiiig dish. composition, the chlorine may be estimated bya volumetric solution of nitrate of silver, andfurther examined. The following table shows the compositionof a few genuine and other butters, examinedaccording to the same, or at least to a simi-lar process to the one described:— Ash, Fat. principallySalt. Water. Caseine. Quality. Fresh Devonshire 82-7 1-1 16-2 16-2 Good. Waneiyn. butter. Normandy butter. 82-1 1-8 161 16-1 3» j> Jersey butter. 78-491 8-528 10-445 2-536 3> Angell and Normandy butter. 82-643 2-915 9-305 5-137 Hehnee. Butter from Vent- 86-280 6-600 3-831 3-289 » Found to be adul- » nor. terated with fo-reign fat. Butter from Lon- 87-50 1-559 23-981 6-880 Adulterated with » don. water. » » 47-119 2-689 42-358 7-834 Adulterated withwater, and con-tains an excessof curd. M 6. A Method of Detecting Meat Fats inButter. Mr Horsley, writing to the Chemi-cal News, September, 1874, says:—My start-ing point is, that fresh butter is permanentlysolu

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Identifier: cooleyscyclopaed01cool
Title: Cooley’s cyclopaedia of practical receipts and collateral information in the arts, manufactures, professions, and trades including medicine, pharmacy, hygiene, and domestic economy : designed as a comprehensive supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and general book of reference for the manufacturer, tradesman, amateur, and heads of families
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Cooley, Arnold James Tuson, Richard Vine, 1832-1888
Subjects: Industrial arts Technology Recipes Pharmaceutical Preparations
Publisher: London : J. & A. Churchill
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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may be obtainedby dissolving the bicar-bonate in exactly 1000gr. of distilled watercon-tained in a * Scbustersalkalimeter, previouslyvery carefully weighed;in which case each grainof the test-solution willindicate rgth of a grain,or Ol^ of absolute aceticacid, whilst every 10 grains will be equal to 1grain, or 1^. The test-solution may also be prepared frombicarbonate of soda, or from the carbonates ofsoda or potash, care being taken that thequantity of the salt dissolved be in proportionto its molecular weight. 2. (Brande.) A small piece of white marble,clean and dry, is weighed, and then suspendedby a silk thread in a weighed sample (say 100or 1000 grs.) of the vinegar or acid underexamination; the action being promoted byoccasionally stirring the liquid with a glassrod, until the whole of the acid is saturated, asshown by no further action on the marblebeing observable on close inspection. Themarble is then withdrawn, washed in distilledwater, dried and weighed. The loss in weight

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24 ACETIMETRY which it has sustained will be nearly equal tothe acetic acid present, or strictly, as 50 (mar-ble) to 60 (absolute acetic acid). The onlyprecautions required are, to avoid striking thepiece of marble with the rod whilst stirringthe solution, or causing loss of siibstance in itafter its withdrawal; and to allow ample timefor the action of the acid on it. If the sampleconsists of strong acid, it should be dilutedwith twice or thrice its weight of water beforesuspending the marble in it. 3. (lire.) 100 grains of the sample underexamination is slightly reddened with tinctureof litmus, and ammonia of the sp. gr. 0992 isadded drop by drop (from an acetimeter hold-ing 1000 water-gr. measure, divided into 100divisions) until precise neutralisation iseffected, indicated by the blue colour of thelitmus being restored. The number of thedivisions of the acetimeter used, multiplied by60, and the first two right-hand figures of theproduct cut off as decimals, gives a numberwhich repr

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